Antioxidants and Lung cancer

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Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby LuciaHuo » Sat Nov 03, 2012 10:44 pm

I hope to find the affect of one type of antioxidant on one type of lung cancer tumor cell. Groups of the cells will be each injected with a different substance to increase the amount of it in the cell. Dose-response to antioxidants will be tested and comparisons will be made.

How can I increase the amount of a substance in a cell? Does the amount of a substance in one's body reflect the amount of it in one's cell? What are better procedures for this experiment?
LuciaHuo
 
Posts: 16
Joined: Sat Nov 03, 2012 10:35 pm
Occupation: Student: 9th grade
Project Question: Find the affect of one type of antioxidant on one type of lung cancer tumor cell. Groups of the cells will be each injected with a different substance to increase the amount of it in the cell. Dose-response to antioxidants will be tested and comparisons will be made.
Questions: How can I increase the amount of a substance in a cell? Does the amount of a substance in one's body reflect the amount of it in one's cell? What are better procedures for this experiment?
Project Due Date: The proposal and a mentor must be found before Nov.16 of 2012 and the experiment must be done before Feb.15 of 2013.
Project Status: I am conducting my research

Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby donnahardy2 » Sun Nov 04, 2012 7:37 pm

Hi Lucia,

Welcome to Science Buddies! This is an excellent topic for a science fair project. I don't think there is any way to increase the uptake of antioxidants inside the cell. I assume you will be growing the cancer cells in tissue culture medium, so you can just add different concentrations of antioxidant to the growth medium. It's very good to include the dose response as part of your experimental design.

What type of lung cancer cells will you be testing? What type of antioxidant will you be using? The best way to ensure an optimum experimental design is to read about the research that others have done on the topic, and then design an experiment that will answer a unique question.

What information about the effect of antioxidants on lung cancer cells have you found so far? Antioxidants are generally considered to be protective against the oxidative processes that lead to the development of cancer, but I'm not sure what effect they have once the cancer cells have developed.

If you have not found a mentor yet, please check out the guidelines for this process on the Science Buddies website. This article contains lots of helpful advice:

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-f ... tors.shtml

Donna Hardy
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Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby LuciaHuo » Sun Nov 04, 2012 10:11 pm

I have been having trouble finding a mentor who has a lab with lung cancer cells lines that I can use. Thus, I have decided to take a step back and take other types of cancer into consideration as well, such as skin and lymphoid cancer. I haven't decided on what antioxidant to use, but I do know that I want to use one that has not been frequently tested before.

I know that free radicals- unstable molecules- and ROS (reactive oxygen species) result from oxidative stress. Free radicals are unstable so they tend to steal electrons from neighbouring cells to stabilize themselves. This sets off a chain reaction and this entire process is very damaging to DNA. ROS are basically free radicals with oxygen and they cause damage to DNA, oxidations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids, oxidations of amino acids in proteins and inactivation of specific enzymes by oxidations of co-factor. Antioxidants an terminate chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions.

Thank you very much for your reply and your help :D . This is a very challenging topic for me. Please offer any suggestions you have.
LuciaHuo
 
Posts: 16
Joined: Sat Nov 03, 2012 10:35 pm
Occupation: Student: 9th grade
Project Question: Find the affect of one type of antioxidant on one type of lung cancer tumor cell. Groups of the cells will be each injected with a different substance to increase the amount of it in the cell. Dose-response to antioxidants will be tested and comparisons will be made.
Questions: How can I increase the amount of a substance in a cell? Does the amount of a substance in one's body reflect the amount of it in one's cell? What are better procedures for this experiment?
Project Due Date: The proposal and a mentor must be found before Nov.16 of 2012 and the experiment must be done before Feb.15 of 2013.
Project Status: I am conducting my research

Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby donnahardy2 » Mon Nov 05, 2012 9:23 am

Hi Lucia,

It sounds like you have done your background reading and have a definite objective in mind. I think it would be worthwhile to do this project with any type of cancer cell that you might have available to work with, if you are not able to find lung cancer cell lines to work with.

Donna
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Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby LuciaHuo » Mon Nov 05, 2012 11:22 pm

I have contacted many researchers and have not received a positive response. I understand their reasons for not saying yes though; my project asks for a lot from the mentor and it's hard for them to trust a grade 9 student with a professional lab because everything is very precise in terms of using the equipments and things like that. Thus, I'm planning to take a step back and try to simplify my project to its core, so much that I will not need a lab and cells to complete my project, even though that's the ideal situation. I'll continue to try to find a mentor with a lab, but I will start researching more about the chemistry involved in this topic, which I think is the most simple way to achieve an accurate answer to this kind of topic. I'm thinking of testing the reactions of different oxidations to antioxidants. Any suggestions on how I can make my experiment simple but still have a high level of accuracy?
LuciaHuo
 
Posts: 16
Joined: Sat Nov 03, 2012 10:35 pm
Occupation: Student: 9th grade
Project Question: Find the affect of one type of antioxidant on one type of lung cancer tumor cell. Groups of the cells will be each injected with a different substance to increase the amount of it in the cell. Dose-response to antioxidants will be tested and comparisons will be made.
Questions: How can I increase the amount of a substance in a cell? Does the amount of a substance in one's body reflect the amount of it in one's cell? What are better procedures for this experiment?
Project Due Date: The proposal and a mentor must be found before Nov.16 of 2012 and the experiment must be done before Feb.15 of 2013.
Project Status: I am conducting my research

Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby tyber » Wed Nov 07, 2012 2:21 pm

Dear LuciaHuo,
Testing Antioxidants can become quiet complicated or simple depending on what kind of equipment you have available. From what I have seen to be relatively accurate the Folin-Ciocalteau Total Phenolic Assay, seems to be relatively simple but has a degree of accuracy and all you need is a spectrophotometer with some solutions. Check out this web page, it contains the majority of antioxidants testing that food companies perform and their relative inaccuracy/irrelevancy to this parent company’s claim. I hope this helps.

http://foodscience.cornell.edu/research ... -assay.pdf

As far as, Cancer cells lines go, I would be very cautious when obtaining these. The purchase and shipping of potentially pathogenic samples is highly regulated and typically requires the facility to have a certain level of Biosafety rating, especially if the facility plans on growing them.

The amount of substance in ones body does not directly effect the amount in one's cells. (A good example is a diabetic patient- their blood glucose is high but their cells are unable to internalize the sugar for different reasons)

A good way to increase the amount of a substance in a cell is to exfoliate the properties of the lipid bilayer or to use a intermembrane transporter, or you could directly inject the cells but this requires highly specialized equipment. Your best bet is to plate your cells, grow them, and simply coat them with your desired chemical (low concentrations) and rely on diffusion to carry the chemical across the membrane.

Tyber Cheever
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Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby donnahardy2 » Thu Nov 08, 2012 8:20 am

Hi LuciaHao,

Tyber has provided excellent information for measuring antioxidant levels in various foods and a good explanation of why it is difficult to increase the concentration of substances inside cells.

If you are not able to find a mentor and access to a tissue culture lab, I think you could do an excellent project by using one of the analytical methods to determine the levels of antioxidants in various foods. If you had access to a spectrophotometer, for example, you could do the project in your high school lab.

Donna Hardy
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Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby LuciaHuo » Sat Nov 10, 2012 12:24 am

I can't put into words how much I appreciate the suggestions!
I have done more research and my revised plan is to test antioxidants and their effects on oxidations in biological systems. I hope to test a type of antioxidant (undetermined) on different reactive oxygen species produced in cells which include hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HClO), and free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and the superoxide anion (O2−) and then compare the results. This idea originated from the existing idea of that oxidative stress induces cancer; antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidations of other molecules, which helps terminate chain reactions that cause negative effects on DNAs, lipids and proteins. My plan is to test the different doses of the type of antioxidant on the different unstable molecules to look at the effectiveness of the antioxidant in balancing unstable molecules.
Tyber, I really appreciate you sending me the link. I'm currently researching and looking over the different methods. My current issue right now remains to be how I'm going to test the number of molecules that have been balanced.
Donnahardy2, simplifying my experiment plan is my goal right now. I'm trying to simplify it as much as possible while still achieving my goal and high accuracy. I think the key is to eliminate materials that are difficult for me to access.
My plan is to do more research and look at some past researches and think about my question more.
LuciaHuo
 
Posts: 16
Joined: Sat Nov 03, 2012 10:35 pm
Occupation: Student: 9th grade
Project Question: Find the affect of one type of antioxidant on one type of lung cancer tumor cell. Groups of the cells will be each injected with a different substance to increase the amount of it in the cell. Dose-response to antioxidants will be tested and comparisons will be made.
Questions: How can I increase the amount of a substance in a cell? Does the amount of a substance in one's body reflect the amount of it in one's cell? What are better procedures for this experiment?
Project Due Date: The proposal and a mentor must be found before Nov.16 of 2012 and the experiment must be done before Feb.15 of 2013.
Project Status: I am conducting my research

Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby donnahardy2 » Sat Nov 10, 2012 9:57 am

Hi LuciaHuo,

Thanks for the additional information about your research plan.

You are smart to carefully consider your experimental options at this point. Here is a paper that you can access that includes the details of 4 different antioxidant assays. There are some details included as well as references to previous publications that you will need to look for.

http://www.google.com/#hl=en&sugexp=les ... 36&bih=475

Why don’t you decide if you can adapt any of these assays for your experiment with the resources that you have available? You only need one method for your project, and any of these techniques would work very well for a science project as they will give you measurable results.

Let us know if you have questions.

Donna Hardy
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Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby LuciaHuo » Sat Nov 10, 2012 10:24 am

Thank you for the link! Every time I click on it, it just directs me to google though. Can you maybe tell me what to search up on google?
LuciaHuo
 
Posts: 16
Joined: Sat Nov 03, 2012 10:35 pm
Occupation: Student: 9th grade
Project Question: Find the affect of one type of antioxidant on one type of lung cancer tumor cell. Groups of the cells will be each injected with a different substance to increase the amount of it in the cell. Dose-response to antioxidants will be tested and comparisons will be made.
Questions: How can I increase the amount of a substance in a cell? Does the amount of a substance in one's body reflect the amount of it in one's cell? What are better procedures for this experiment?
Project Due Date: The proposal and a mentor must be found before Nov.16 of 2012 and the experiment must be done before Feb.15 of 2013.
Project Status: I am conducting my research

Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby donnahardy2 » Sat Nov 10, 2012 11:00 am

Hi,

I apologize, I sent you the wrong link. For your article, I did a search for “how to measure the antioxidant effect on hydrogen peroxide,” and this is the link I meant for you to have:

http://www.google.com/#hl=en&sugexp=les ... 36&bih=475

It’s a citation from Int. J. Mol. Sci, 2007, 8, 797-809.

Measurement of Antioxidant Activity of Wine Catechins,
Procyanidins, Anthocyanins and Pyranoanthocyanins
Jan Muselík 1, María García-Alonso 2, María P. Martín-López 2, Milan Žemlička 3 and
Julián C. Rivas-Gonzalo 2,*

Please let me know if you can’t access it, and I will try to upload a copy for you.

Donna Hardy
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Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby LuciaHuo » Sat Nov 10, 2012 1:30 pm

Hi Donnahardy2,
I still cannot access it. Please try to upload it for me. Once again, thank you!
LuciaHuo
 
Posts: 16
Joined: Sat Nov 03, 2012 10:35 pm
Occupation: Student: 9th grade
Project Question: Find the affect of one type of antioxidant on one type of lung cancer tumor cell. Groups of the cells will be each injected with a different substance to increase the amount of it in the cell. Dose-response to antioxidants will be tested and comparisons will be made.
Questions: How can I increase the amount of a substance in a cell? Does the amount of a substance in one's body reflect the amount of it in one's cell? What are better procedures for this experiment?
Project Due Date: The proposal and a mentor must be found before Nov.16 of 2012 and the experiment must be done before Feb.15 of 2013.
Project Status: I am conducting my research

Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby donnahardy2 » Sat Nov 10, 2012 6:04 pm

Hi,

I will post the article a few pages at a time. Here are the first 3 pages:

antioxidants part I.pdf
(152.63 KiB) Downloaded 138 times


Donna
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Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby donnahardy2 » Sat Nov 10, 2012 6:07 pm

Here's the second section.

antioxidants part II.pdf
(131.88 KiB) Downloaded 111 times
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Re: Antioxidants and Lung cancer

Postby donnahardy2 » Sat Nov 10, 2012 6:10 pm

pages 7-9

antioxidants part III.pdf
(98.23 KiB) Downloaded 114 times
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