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Squishy Circuits Project 3: Make a 3D Play Dough Sculpture

Difficulty
Time Required Average (6-10 days)
Prerequisites This project requires understanding the Introduction material in the first two "Squishy Circuits" projects: Light Up Your Play Dough! and Add Even More Lights
Material Availability This project requires a Squishy Circuits Kit. See the Materials and Equipment list for details.
Cost Low ($20 - $50)
Safety Never connect the battery pack's terminals directly to each other; this is called a short circuit and can make the batteries and wires get very hot. Do not connect the LEDs directly to the battery pack without using play dough; this will burn out the LEDs.

Abstract

Have you tried our first and second Squishy Circuits projects? Are you a squishy circuit master, ready to try something even bigger and better? Try this project to see if you can build a three-dimensional light-up sculpture.

Objective

Use Play-Doh® and modeling clay to create a three-dimensional sculpture that lights up.

Credits

Ben Finio, PhD, Science Buddies

This project idea is based on the Squishy Circuits project originally developed at St. Thomas University.

  • Play-Doh® is a registered trademark of Hasbro Inc.

Cite This Page

MLA Style

Science Buddies Staff. "Squishy Circuits Project 3: Make a 3D Play Dough Sculpture" Science Buddies. Science Buddies, 12 Apr. 2016. Web. 25 July 2016 <http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Elec_p075/electricity-electronics/squishy-circuits-project-3>

APA Style

Science Buddies Staff. (2016, April 12). Squishy Circuits Project 3: Make a 3D Play Dough Sculpture. Retrieved July 25, 2016 from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Elec_p075/electricity-electronics/squishy-circuits-project-3

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Last edit date: 2016-04-12

Introduction

In Project 1 of our "Squishy Circuits" project series, you learned about open, closed, and short circuits. In Project 2, you learned the difference between series and parallel circuits, and the best way to hook up multiple LEDs to your creations. If you need to review this information, you can go back to the Introduction section of the Light Up Your Play Dough! and Add Even More Lights science projects. You can also review the Electricity, Magnetism, & Electromagnetism Tutorial to learn more about electricity.

In this project, there is no new information to learn about circuits. Instead, you will apply what you have already learned to light up a three-dimensional structure. This is what engineers do; they apply scientific concepts to build interesting, fun, or useful products. A couple of important reminders before you get started: Remember that you need to attach your LEDs in parallel so they will all light up brightly, and you need to use layers of modeling clay (or homemade insulating dough) to prevent short circuits. But beyond that, there are no rules; your imagination is the limit!

To help you get started, check out the "frog" example:

squishy circuit frog with parallel LEDs
Figure 1. Example of a three-dimensional squishy circuit creation: a frog with LEDs for eyes.

The secret to lighting up the frog's eyes without creating a short circuit is to use a layer of modeling clay to separate the frog's back from its belly and feet. This is shown in Figure 2.

squishy circuit diagram frog with parallel LEDs
Figure 2. The frog is made out of two separate pieces of Play-Doh: one for its back and one for its belly and feet. These are stuck together with a layer of modeling clay. Each LED then has one end plugged in to the top layer, and one end plugged in to the bottom layer. This creates a parallel circuit, and the eyes light up!

Now, it's your turn! Let your imagination run wild—animals, buildings, land forms, people, and more—and most importantly, have fun with it!

Terms and Concepts

  • Open circuit
  • Closed circuit
  • Short circuit
  • Series circuit
  • Parallel circuit

Questions

  • Do you remember the difference between open, closed, and short circuits? Which kind do you need for your LEDs to light up?
  • Do you remember the difference between series and parallel circuits? Which one will make your LEDs brighter?

Bibliography

The creators of Squishy Circuits provide directions for how to build a "squishy animal":

If you need review, here are the circuit references from the previous science projects in the electric play dough series.

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Materials and Equipment Product Kit Available

Note: if you have already purchased a Squishy Circuits Kit and the materials to make conductive and insulating play dough for a previous squishy circuits science project, you can reuse those materials and do not need to buy new supplies..

These specialty items can be purchased from the Science Buddies Store:

  • Squishy Circuits kit (1). Includes:
    • DC hobby motor
    • Piezoelectric buzzer
    • Mechanical buzzer
    • 4 AA Battery pack
    • Jumbo LEDs (25 total — 5 each in red, green, white, yellow, and blue)
    • Conductive play dough recipe
    • Insulating play dough recipe

You will also need to gather these items:

  • AA batteries (4)
  • Play-Doh®
  • Modeling clay

Optional: instead of using store-bought Play-Doh and modeling clay, you can make your own conductive dough (replaces Play-Doh) and insulating dough (replaces modeling clay). See Squishy Circuits Recipes for directions for making your own dough. You will need the following supplies and ingredients:

  • Mixing bowl
  • Measuring cups
  • Measuring spoons
  • Spoon or spatula
  • Pot you can use on the stove
  • Adult helper
  • Ingredients:
    • Tap water (1 C.)
    • Deionized or distilled water (1/2 C.); deionized or distilled water is available in the bottled water section of most grocery stores
    • Vegetable oil (4 tbsp.)
    • Cream of tartar (3 tbsp.; note that a 1.5 oz jar is the same as 3 tbsp.) or lemon juice (9 tbsp.)
    • Flour (3 C.)
    • Salt (1/4 C.)
    • Sugar (1/2 C.)
    • Optional, but highly recommended: Food coloring
  • Plastic bags or containers in which to store play dough so it does not dry out

Recommended Project Supplies

View Kit
Project Kit: $24.95

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Experimental Procedure

Note: This engineering project is best described by the engineering design process, as opposed to the scientific method. You might want to ask your teacher whether it's acceptable to follow the engineering design process for your project before you begin. You can learn more about the engineering design process in the Science Buddies Engineering Design Process Guide.
  1. Optional: if you are making your own homemade conductive and insulating dough instead of using store-bought Play-Doh and modeling clay, follow the instructions on Squishy Circuits Recipes.
  2. Insert the four AA batteries into the battery pack that came with your kit.
  3. Now, plan out the three-dimensional creation that you want to make and how you want to add lights. It might help if you sketch your design on paper. Remember that you need to connect your LEDs in parallel, and that the actual shape of the Play-Doh does not matter, as long as each LED has its own "loop" formed with the battery. You might need to use modeling clay in some places to prevent a short circuit. Once you have a plan, start building!
  4. Can you cleverly design your sculpture so the LED leads are not showing? How can you cover them with the right type of dough (conducting or insulating) to hide them without creating a short circuit?
  5. Are there size limitations on your sculpture? Do the LEDs get dimmer if they get too far away from the battery pack?
  6. If your LEDs do not light up, remember to try reversing them, because electricity can only flow through them in one direction. Also make sure your battery pack is turned on. If you are having trouble, consult the FAQ for other tips and tricks.

Troubleshooting

For troubleshooting tips, please read our FAQ: Squishy Circuits Project 3: Make a 3D Play Dough Sculpture.

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Variations

  • Your Squishy Circuits Kit also came with a motor and two buzzers. Can you add those to your creation somehow? Note: you have to connect the buzzers and motor to your battery pack using short, thick lumps of Play-Doh. If you try to use long, narrow strips of Play-Doh, they will not work.
  • Curious about the chemistry behind this project? Research what ingredient or ingredients make the homemade doughs conductive or insulating; then try changing the recipes to see what it does to the conductive and insulating properties of the dough. For instance, how much salt do you need for the play dough to conduct electricity?

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

If you are having trouble with this project, please read the FAQ below. You may find the answer to your question.

This guide contains answers to some frequently asked questions for the "Squishy Circuits" project idea series:

  1. Squishy Circuits Project 1: Light Up Your Play Dough!
  2. Squishy Circuits Project 2: Add Even More Lights
  3. Squishy Circuits Project 3: Make a 3D Play Dough Sculpture
Q: My homemade dough is too sticky or too dry.
A: If your homemade dough is too wet and sticky, you can slowly knead in extra flour to dry it out. If your dough is too dry and crumbly, you can slowly knead in extra water.

If you are making a new batch of dough, the best way to prevent these problems is to follow the directions carefully and measure the appropriate amount of each ingredient. Some steps require you to slowly add small amounts of water until the desired consistency is formed, instead of adding the entire amount all at once.

Q: I'm not sure if my Squishy Circuits Kit is working.
A:
  1. Make sure you properly inserted the batteries into the battery pack. Each battery is marked with a "+" symbol on one end. Make sure these symbols line up with the "+" symbols on the inside of the battery pack.
  2. Make sure you turn the switch on your battery pack to the "on" position when you are testing your circuit.
  3. As a simple test, try connecting the motor leads directly to the battery pack leads using short, thick lumps of Play-Doh. The motor should spin regardless of which way you connect the leads.
  4. Make sure your Play-Doh is tightly secured around the metal leads for your battery pack and motor. If you wiggle them around a lot and they come loose, then they will not be in good contact, and it will be difficult for electricity to flow.
  5. If you have a multimeter, you can use it to measure the voltage from your battery pack. Four AA batteries should provide about 6 volts (V). If the voltage is lower than 6 V, your batteries might be dead. Consult the Science Buddies Multimeter Tutorial if you need help using a multimeter.
  6. If your motor still does not spin after trying all the steps above, try putting new batteries in the battery pack.
Q: My LEDs won't light up.
A:
  1. Remember that LEDs have a polarity, meaning they only work in one direction. The longer LED lead should be connected toward the positive side of your circuit, which is the side with the red wire protruding from the battery pack. If one LED in your circuit is not lighting up, but others are, you probably just have that LED plugged in backwards. Try reversing its direction and see if it lights up.
  2. Make sure your Play-Doh is tightly packed around the metal leads for your battery pack. If you wiggle them around a lot and they come loose, then they will not be in good contact, and it will be difficult for electricity to flow.
  3. Make sure you do not have a short circuit. For more information about short circuits (including pictures and diagrams), refer to the Introduction of the first Squishy Circuits project.
  4. If your circuit has two or more LEDs, make sure they are wired in parallel and not in series. Wiring multiple LEDs in series will quickly cause them to become very dim. For more information about the difference between series and parallel circuits (including pictures and diagrams), refer to the Introduction of the second Squishy Circuits project.
  5. Make sure you are not using very long pieces of conductive play dough to connect your battery terminals to your LEDs. The conductive play dough has a fairly high resistance, which causes the voltage to drop as electricity travels through it. If you use very long pieces of conductive dough, the voltage might drop so much that the LEDs will not light up. To learn more about voltage and resistance, check out the Science Buddies Electronics Primer Introduction.
  6. Never connect your LEDs directly to the battery pack leads without using Play-Doh in between. Connecting LEDs directly to the battery pack will cause them to burn out; too much current will flow, permanently destroying the LED. If you have LEDs that do not light up at all despite trying all the steps above, you might have accidentally burned them out at some point.
Q: Some parts of my circuit work and some don't.
A:
  1. In general, follow the same steps as in FAQ 3. For a big circuit, it is possible to have a short circuit in only part of the circuit; some LEDs might light up, while others stay dark. You might have also accidentally wired some LEDs in series, and some in parallel. Remember to always avoid short circuits, check the direction your LEDs are plugged in, and make sure your LEDs are wired in parallel.
  2. You can test individual parts of your circuit, one at a time. You can do this by breaking them away from the rest of your circuit and connecting them to the battery pack separately, or by sticking the battery pack leads into different parts of your circuit. This will let you identify problem areas in your circuit.
  3. Remember that it is possible to burn out LEDs by connecting them directly to the battery pack. If nothing else works, try swapping in a new LED.
Q: How should I store my homemade dough? How long will it last?
A:
  1. Both types of homemade dough (conductive and insulating) should be stored in air-tight plastic containers or plastic bags. You can put it in the refrigerator to make it last even longer.
  2. The conductive play dough contains salt, so will last for several weeks or months if kept in an air-tight container. Eventually, you may still see spots of mold or bacteria growing on it.
  3. Insulating play dough contains sugar, which bacteria and other microorganisms thrive on. You may start to see mold or bacteria growing on it after several days or a week, but it will last longer if refrigerated.
  4. If your play dough develops spots of visible mold or bacteria, you should throw it away and make a new batch.
Q: I can get the LEDs to work, but not the motor or the buzzers.
A:
  1. Make sure you use short, thick lumps of Play-Doh to connect the motor and buzzers to your battery pack. The motor and buzzers require much more electricity to operate than the LEDs. Long, thin strips of Play-Doh have a higher electrical resistance, making it difficult for enough electricity to flow through them.
  2. The buzzers have polarity, just like the LEDs. Their red wires need to be connected to the battery pack's red wire, and their black wires connected to the battery pack's black wire. The motor will work in either direction—reversing the wires will just reverse the direction the motor spins.

Ask an Expert

The Ask an Expert Forum is intended to be a place where students can go to find answers to science questions that they have been unable to find using other resources. If you have specific questions about your science fair project or science fair, our team of volunteer scientists can help. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot.

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Contact Us

If you have purchased a kit for this project from Science Buddies, we are pleased to answer any question not addressed by the FAQ above.

In your email, please follow these instructions:
  1. What is your Science Buddies kit order number?
  2. Please describe how you need help as thoroughly as possible:

    Examples

    Good Question I'm trying to do Experimental Procedure step #5, "Scrape the insulation from the wire. . ." How do I know when I've scraped enough?
    Good Question I'm at Experimental Procedure step #7, "Move the magnet back and forth . . ." and the LED is not lighting up.
    Bad Question I don't understand the instructions. Help!
    Good Question I am purchasing my materials. Can I substitute a 1N34 diode for the 1N25 diode called for in the material list?
    Bad Question Can I use a different part?

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