A cytotechnologist could...
|Quickly prepare slides from surgical patients to determine if all the tumor cells have been removed.||Save a child’s life by detecting a serious infection in his blood samples and informing the doctors.|
|Examine a patient’s biopsy under a microscope to determine whether he or she has colon cancer.||Evaluate spinal fluid samples from college students to determine if meningitis is making them sick.|
Key Facts & Information
|Overview||When a patient gets sick, his or her doctor will take sample cells from the affected part of his or her body and send them to a lab for testing to figure out what is wrong. This is where the cytotechnologist steps in. The cytotechnologist will take the sample cells, make slides from them, and examine the slides under a microscope. Cytotechnologists are trained to detect abnormalities in cells that come from all body sites in order to to make a diagnosis of cancer or other diseases. These professionals help pathologists and doctors diagnose diseases early, thus saving lives.|
|Key Requirements||Problem-solving skills, ability to focus on tasks, detail-oriented, good judgement capabilities, strong communication skills|
|Minimum Degree||Bachelor's degree|
|Subjects to Study in High School||Biology, chemistry, physics, algebra, geometry; if available, biotechnology|
|Projected Job Growth (2010-2020)||Average (7% to 13%) In Demand!|
Training, Other Qualifications
Upon successful completion of a degree program, graduates are eligible to take the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Board of Certification exam. Most employers require cytotechnologists to be ASCP certified. Individuals interested in becoming supervisors, lab managers, and educators might also pursue ASCP Specialist Certification in Cytotechnology. Certain states also require cytotechnologists to be licensed to work in that state.
Education and Training
The minimum degree required for an entry-level position in this field is a bachelor's degree. In order to become a cytotechnologist, interested individuals must attend an accredited program in cytotechnology. Educational programs are either university-based or hospital-based and involve 1 or 2 years of instruction. All individuals must possess a bachelor's degree upon completion of the program. Minimum academic requirements are 28 semester credits of combined biology and chemistry and three semester credits of mathematics or statistics. Requirements may vary, depending on each individual program.
For positions as lab managers or educators, employers usually require a graduate degree.
Nature of the Work
Kelly is a cytotechnologist, and in this video, she describes her first experience looking at a sample slide and how she gets "lost" in a slide.
Cytotechnology is the study of the structure, formation, and function of cells. Cytotechnologists study cells that have been shed normally, scraped from the body, or aspirated with a fine needle. The cytotechnologist makes a judgment decision as to what is normal and abnormal by analyzing cellular patterns and subtle changes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, shape, color, and size of cells while correlating the patient's clinical history. This is a highly specialized and technical field of study.
Cytotechnologists work independently doing meticulous microscopic work. They must be comfortable making decisions and must assume a great deal of responsibility. Cytotechnologists are responsible for the preliminary interpretation of specimens from body sites, such as the lung, bladder, body cavities, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, female reproductive tract, liver, lymph nodes, thyroid, salivary glands and breast. As part of the job, the cytotechnologist will stain the cells in order to make it easier to differentiate from surrounding tissue. Cytotechnologists work in collaboration with pathologists to diagnose benign and infectious processes, precancerous lesions, and malignant disease. Providing a definitive diagnosis in a timely, safe, and cost-effective manner helps save patients' lives by allowing clinicians to provide necessary and appropriate treatment to patients as quickly as possible.
Cytotechnologists work with various technologies to aid in diagnoses. These technologies include image analysis, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular diagnostic procedures, and automated equipment.
Cytotechnologists usually work in hospitals, clinics, and private laboratories. Other places of employment are research laboratories, educational institutions, and government facilities. They work with a variety of lab equipment and are often seated for long periods of time while they perform their duties. The work environment is fast paced, requires efficiency and accuracy, and can be stressful.
On the Job
- Examine cell samples to detect abnormalities in the color, shape, or size of cellular components and patterns.
- Examine specimens using microscopes to evaluate specimen quality.
- Prepare and analyze samples, such as Papanicolaou (PAP) smear body fluids and fine needle aspirations (FNAs), to detect abnormal conditions.
- Provide patient clinical data or microscopic findings to assist pathologists in the preparation of pathology reports.
- Assist pathologists or other physicians to collect cell samples such as by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies.
- Examine specimens to detect abnormal hormone conditions.
- Document specimens by verifying patients' and specimens' information.
- Maintain effective laboratory operations by adhering to standards of specimen collection, preparation, or laboratory safety.
- Perform karyotyping or organizing of chromosomes according to standardized ideograms.
- Prepare cell samples by applying special staining techniques, such as chromosomal staining, to differentiate cells or cell components.
- Submit slides with abnormal cell structures to pathologists for further examination.
- Adjust, maintain, or repair laboratory equipment such as microscopes.
- Assign tasks or coordinate task assignments to ensure adequate performance of laboratory activities.
- Attend continuing education programs that address laboratory issues.
Companies That Hire Cytotechnologists
Explore what you might do on the job with one of these projects...
Do you have a specific question about a career in Human Biology & Health that isn't answered on this page? Post your question on Science Buddies Ask an Expert Forum.
For additional information about cytotechnology, visit the following websites:
- American Society for Cytotechnology
- American Society for Clinical Pathology
- American Society of Cytopathology
- O*Net Online. (2009). National Center for O*Net Development. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://online.onetcenter.org/
- Myfootpath.com. (2009). Cytotechnologist Interview. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://www.myfootpath.com/advice-and-answers/career-interviews/cytotechnologist-career-interview/
- Institute of Biomedical Science. (2009, August). The Work and Roles of Cytologists. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://www.ibms.org/go/about-biomedical-science:careers-jobs:careers-cytology
- Brooks, W. (2005, March 17). UNMC Today: Cytotechnologists—Finding Disease in Life's Building Blocks. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://app1.unmc.edu/PublicAffairs/TodaySite/sitefiles/today_full.cfm?match=2060
- The Michener Institute. (2009, November 23). The Michener Institute—Heroes Campaign: Diagnostic Cytology Part 2. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3KnUa37B-g&feature=channel
- American Society for Cytotechnology. (n.d.). Profession of Cytotechnology. Retrieved September 10, 2010, from www.asct.com/content/profession-cytotechnology
- MHA Health Careers Center. (2004). Cytotechnologist. Retrieved September 10, 2010, from www.mshealthcareers.com/careers/cytotechnologist.htm
- Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2009). Cytotechnology Career Overview. Retrieved September 10, 2010, from www.mayo.edu/mshs/cyt-career.html
We'd like to acknowledge the additional support of:
- Abbott Fund