Create Announcement

This feature requires that you be logged in as a Google Classroom teacher and that you have an active class in Google Classroom.

If you are a Google Classroom teacher, please log in now.

For additional information about using Science Buddies with Google Classroom, see our FAQ.

woman in a barn holding a baby goat

An animal breeder could...

Breed a Kentucky Derby winning thoroughbred horse. horse race Keep animal pedigrees to determine how traits, like coat color, are inherited. spotted dog
Work with wildlife conservationists to breed endangered animals in captivity. monkey Help a family settle on an ideal breed of dog for their lifestyle. family with dog in the snow
Find out more...

Key Facts & Information

Overview Why is it that certain breeds of cattle produce more flesh or milk? Why is one horse faster than another? The answer is that these breeds were engineered to have these special characteristics. Animal breeders need to understand genetics in order to produce animals that are bigger, faster, or more beautiful. If you are interested in working with animals and are fascinated by the science of genetics, then you should investigate this career.
Key Requirements Must enjoy interacting with and caring for animals, and have patience, curiosity, diligence, and strong problem-solving skills
Minimum Degree High school diploma or equivalent
Subjects to Study in High School Biology, chemistry, algebra, algebra II, pre-calculus, English; if available: computer science
Median Salary
Animal Breeder
U.S. Mean Annual Wage
Min Wage
Projected Job Growth (2014-2024) Decline Slowly or Moderately (-3% to -9%)
  • Read about the The Art of Being a Successful Breeder from the American Kennel Club.
  • Watch this conversation with International Dog Breeder, Victor Malzoni by Dogs in Review.
Related Occupations
  • Nonfarm animal caretakers
  • Farmworkers, farm and ranch animals
Source: O*Net

Training, Other Qualifications

The majority of agricultural workers learn their skills on the job in less than a month. Some occupations, such as animal breeding, require more work experience or formal education.

Education and Training

The education and training requirements for animal breeders vary with the type of breeding they do. For those who breed livestock and other large or expensive animals, a bachelor's or graduate degree in animal science is recommended. Courses include genetics, animal breeding, and animal physiology. For those with experience raising animals or who are breeding their own animals, a bachelor's degree often is not needed, but an associate's degree or other training in animal breeding is recommended.

Other Qualifications

People who want to become animal breeders should be responsible, be able to communicate well, and like detailed work.

This video details the roles and responsibilities of animal breeding. Animal breeding encompasses breeding both large farm animals and pet animals.

Nature of the Work

Animal breeders select and breed animals using their knowledge of genetics and animal science to produce offspring with desired traits and characteristics, such as chickens that lay more eggs, pigs that produce leaner meat, and sheep with more desirable wool. Some animal breeders also breed and raise cats, dogs, and other household pets. Larger and more-expensive animals, such as horses and cattle, are usually bred through artificial insemination, which requires the taking of semen from the male and then insemination of the female. This process ensures better results than conventional mating and also enables one prized male to sire many more offspring. To know which animals to breed and when, animal breeders keep detailed records, including the health of the animals, their size and weight, and the amount and quality of the product produced by them. They also keep track of the traits of the offspring. Some animal breeders work as consultants for a number of farmers, but others breed and raise their own animals for sale or future breeding. For those who raise animals, tasks might include fixing and cleaning animal shelters, feeding and watering the animals, and overseeing animals' health. Some breeders supervise others who perform these tasks. Animal breeders also read journals and newsletters to learn the latest information on breeding and veterinary practices.

Work Environment

Animal breeders spend most of their time outdoors around animals, but can also work in offices or laboratories. Breeders who consult might travel from farm to farm. If they need to sell offspring, breeders might travel to attend shows and meet potential buyers. While tending to the animals, breeders might be bitten or kicked.

On the Job

  • Feed and water animals, and clean and disinfect pens, cages, yards, and hutches.
  • Examine animals in order to detect symptoms of illness or injury.
  • Place vaccines in drinking water, inject vaccines, or dust air with vaccine powder, in order to protect animals from diseases.
  • Select animals to be bred, and semen specimens to be used, according to knowledge of animals, genealogies, traits, and desired offspring characteristics.
  • Treat minor injuries and ailments, and contact veterinarians in order to obtain treatment for animals with serious illnesses or injuries.
  • Observe animals in heat in order to detect approach of estrus, and exercise animals to induce or hasten estrus, if necessary.
  • Record animal characteristics such as weights, growth patterns, and diets.
  • Exhibit animals at shows.
  • Build hutches, pens, and fenced yards.
  • Clip or shear hair on animals.
  • Attach rubber collecting sheaths to genitals of tethered bull, and stimulate animal's organ in order to induce ejaculation.
  • Package and label semen to be used for artificial insemination, recording information such as the date, source, quality, and concentration.
  • Prepare containers of semen for freezing and storage or shipment, placing them in dry ice or liquid nitrogen.
  • Maintain logs of semen specimens used and animals bred.
  • Arrange for sale of animals and eggs to hospitals, research centers, pet shops, and food processing plants.
  • Measure specified amounts of semen into calibrated syringes, and insert syringes into inseminating guns.
  • Inject prepared animal semen into female animals for breeding purposes, by inserting nozzle of syringe into vagina and depressing syringe plunger.
  • Adjust controls in order to maintain specific building temperatures required for animals' health and safety.
  • Examine semen microscopically in order to assess and record density and motility of gametes, and dilute semen with prescribed diluents according to formulas.
  • Brand, tattoo, or tag animals in order to allow animal identification.
  • Perform procedures such as animal dehorning or castration.

Source: BLS

Companies That Hire Animal Breeders

Explore what you might do on the job with one of these projects...

Log in to add favorite
Science Fair Project Idea
Some characteristics, like the shape of your hairline or whether your earlobes are attached or detached, are inherited from your parents. In this science project you will see how writing these characteristics onto a family tree can help you determine how they are inherited Read more
Log in to add favorite
Science Fair Project Idea
Ladybugs are common insects in North American gardens that prey upon aphids, making them all the rage in biological pest control. Ladybugs can be bred in captivity making them a good insect to study. Just chop off an aphid infested plant stem for food, make a water soaked cotton ball for water, and add to a small plastic container with a lid to make a breeding box. You can use ladybugs collected from the wild, or buy ladybugs from your local nursery. The most common species is the 12-spotted… Read more
Log in to add favorite
Science Fair Project Idea
Have you ever seen a tortoiseshell cat? "What kind of cat is that?" you might ask. A tortoiseshell cat has two different fur colors, black or brown and red or orange. The gene that gives rise to the red or orange fur color is on the X chromosome. And did you know that most tortoiseshell cats are female? That's because female cats have two X chromosomes, while males only have one, which allows the females to express two different color combinations! Try this science fair project to figure out… Read more
Log in to add favorite
Science Fair Project Idea
Did you know that there are over 58 million overweight cats and dogs in the United States? Is your pet one of them? How about your neighbor's cat or your grandma's dog? In this science project you'll determine what percentage of the pets you know are overweight and how their weights compare to pets' weights throughout the United States. Read more
Log in to add favorite
Science Fair Project Idea
Mice, rats, and other rodents are typically nocturnal animals; that is, their activity level is highest at night. For this science fair project, you will build a device that records your pet's activity by monitoring movement of its exercise wheel to see how it varies during the day and night. You can also experiment with various ways of changing your pet's cycle of activity; for example, by playing with it during the day when it's normally resting. Read more

Ask Questions

Do you have a specific question about a career as an Animal Breeder that isn't answered on this page? Post your question on the Science Buddies Ask an Expert Forum.


Free science fair projects.