plant scientists

A plant scientist could...

Increase fruit crop yields by researching plant diseases. strawwberries in bucket Help feed the world by genetically engineering drought-tolerant crops. woman looking in microscope
Develop new agricultural techniques to grow food on board the space station. lettuce in space Genetically engineer a new exotic rose variety. rose
Find out more...

Key Facts & Information

Overview With a growing world population, making sure that there is enough food for everyone is critical. Plant scientists work to ensure that agricultural practices result in an abundance of nutritious food in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner.
Key Requirements Patience, attention to detail, and determination
Minimum Degree Bachelor's degree
Subjects to Study in High School Biology, chemistry, physics, algebra, geometry, calculus; if available, statistics, computer science
Median Salary
Plant Scientist
U.S. Mean Annual Wage
Min Wage
Projected Job Growth (2014-2024) More Slowly than Average (3% to 6%) In Demand!
  • Read this interview with Dr. Ted Tibbitts, emeritus professor of horticulture at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
  • Check out this interview with Dr. Patricia Cox, senior botanist at the Tennessee Valley Authority.
Related Occupations
Source: O*Net

Training, Other Qualifications

A bachelor's degree in plant biology is sufficient for some jobs in product development or for assisting in applied research, but a master's or doctoral degree (PhD) is generally required for basic research or for jobs directing applied research. A PhD in agricultural science or plant biology is usually needed for college teaching and for advancement to senior research positions as well. Degrees in related sciences, such as molecular biology, genetics, chemistry, or biochemistry may also qualify people for many plant science jobs.

The American Society of Agronomy certifies sub-specialists, such as crop advisers. These certifications require at least a bachelor's degree and several years of work experience. Applicants must also pass designated examinations and agree to adhere to a code of ethics. Each certification is maintained through continuing education.

Education and Training

A bachelor's degree is the minimum requirement for plant science jobs. Students preparing for careers as plant scientists should take college courses in plant pathology, entomology, plant physiology, and biochemistry, among others.

To conduct basic research or to advance to jobs directing applied research, a master's or doctoral degree is required. Advanced degree programs in plant science include classroom and fieldwork, laboratory research, and a thesis or dissertation based on independent research.

Other Qualifications

Plant scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Most of these scientists also need an understanding of basic business principles, the ability to apply statistical techniques, and the ability to use computers to analyze data and to control biological and chemical processing.

Video: What is a Botanist, Anyway?
Watch this video to accompany a plant scientist student as she collects flower specimens.

Nature of the Work

Plant scientists plays an important role in maintaining the nation's food supply by ensuring agricultural productivity and food safety. These scientists study farm crops and develop ways to improve their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and to conserve soil and water. Some plant scientists look for ways to use agricultural products for fuels.

Plant scientists study plants in order to help producers of food, animal feed, and fiber crops to feed a growing population and conserve natural resources. These scientists not only help increase productivity, but also study ways to improve the nutritional value of crops and the quality of seed, often through biotechnology. Some plant scientists study the breeding, physiology, and management of crops and use genetic engineering to develop crops that are resistant to pests and to drought. They also develop new technologies to control or eliminate pests and prevent their spread in ways appropriate to the specific environment.

Work Environment

Plant scientists work in a variety of environments. Those involved in basic research seek to understand the biological and chemical processes by which crops grow, such as determining the role of a particular gene in plant growth. Scientists involved in applied research use this knowledge to discover mechanisms to improve the quality, quantity, or safety of agricultural products. Other plant scientists manage or administer research and development programs, or manage marketing or production operations in companies that produce agricultural chemicals, seeds, and machinery. Some plant scientists are consultants to business firms, private clients, or government.

Plant scientists involved in management or basic research tend to work regular hours in offices and laboratories. The work environment for those engaged in applied research or product development varies, depending on specialty and on type of employer. Many plant scientists also spend time outdoors conducting research on farms and agricultural research stations.

On the Job

  • Communicate research and project results to other professionals and the public, or teach related courses, seminars, or workshops.
  • Provide information and recommendations to farmers and other landowners regarding ways in which they can best use land and promote plant growth.
  • Conduct experiments to develop new or improved varieties of field crops, focusing on characteristics such as yield, quality, disease resistance, nutritional value, or adaptation to specific soils or climates.
  • Develop new or improved methods and products for controlling and eliminating weeds, crop diseases, and insect pests.
  • Conduct research to determine best methods of planting, spraying, cultivating, harvesting, storing, processing, or transporting horticultural products.
  • Study insect distribution and habitat and recommend methods to prevent importation and spread of injurious species.
  • Identify and classify species of insects and allied forms, such as mites and spiders.
  • Conduct experiments regarding causes of bee diseases, and factors affecting yields of nectar pollen.

Source: BLS

Companies That Hire Plant Scientists

Explore what you might do on the job with one of these projects...

Science Fair Project Idea
What do plants need to grow? Most of us would answer that they need light, air, water, and soil. But by using a process called hydroponics, you can grow plants without soil! How does it work? Try this project and see for yourself! Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Soil erosion can cost the world billions of dollars every year by washing pollutants into our streams and rivers and by causing the loss of farmland. What can you do about this problem? Help save the world (and some money!) with nothing more than a few plants! Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Have you ever seen a (non-carnivorous) plant eat? Probably not! Plants do not get the energy they need from food, but from the sunlight! In a process called photosynthesis, plants convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into oxygen and sugar. They can then use the sugar as an energy source to fuel their growth. Scientists have found an easy way to measure the rate of photosynthesis in plants. The procedure is called the floating leaf disk assay. In this plant biology project, you can… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
To be able to live on Mars, humans need breathable air, clean water, and nutritious food. Spacesuits can provide oxygen to breathe, ice on Mars can be a source of water, but how could we get nutritious food? Today's astronauts bring food with them. But a manned trip to Mars would require food that was either successfully grown in space or on Mars, as taking the extra weight of food for such a long time—it takes 6–9 months one way—is just too costly. In this project, you will… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Water is a valuable resource, and water shortages are a serious problem in many parts of the world. The problem can be made worse by people who waste water; for example, by watering a garden or using sprinklers on their lawn (or a farmer taking care of an entire field) when it has rained recently or the soil is already moist. How can you help conserve water and prevent such waste? One way is to build an electronic soil moisture sensor. This project will show you how to build a circuit that… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
You might not know it, but plants are able to sense their environment and actually respond appropriately. One of the key parameters that every plant must respond to is the direction of gravity: stems go up (opposite to the pull of gravity) and roots go down (in the same direction as the force of gravity). In this project, you will construct simple devices that hold several germinating seeds, which allow you to watch how growing rootlets respond as you rotate the devices, effectively altering… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Fuzzy things are often cute, but not when that fuzziness is mold on your strawberry—yuck! Companies look for natural, plant-based ways to protect the berries from mold when they are in the store, waiting for you to purchase them. Would washing them in aloe vera juice protect strawberries from mold? Do this project and find out! Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Hydrogen peroxide (often used as a disinfectant) has also been approved for use in pesticides. This science fair project investigates whether hydrogen peroxide has any effects on seed germination or on roots of plant cuttings. Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Plants move—not very quickly compared to animals, but they do move. Their roots grow downward in response to gravity, and their stems grow upward toward the Sun. In this plant biology science fair project, you will investigate how young plants respond through movement to light. Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are organisms whose DNA have been manipulated to give them new traits. In genetically modified (GM) food crops traits like resistance to drought or pesticide might be added, or the crop may have been made more nutritious, or the taste may be altered to give you something like the impossible burger. Are there GMOs in your favorite foods? Many countries have implemented or are in the process of implementing GMO labeling on foods, but with a little bit of… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
One way to conserve water is to find safe ways to use it more than once. Here is a project to test whether greywater (water that has been used for washing or bathing) can be used for watering ornamental plants. Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
You have most likely witnessed the change that occurs as a banana ripens It changes from green and relatively hard to yellow and soft. The flavor also changes, from bitter to sweet. What happens during ripening? One big change is the increase in sugar content. In this food science fair project, you will measure how the sugar content of a banana changes as it ripens. Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Do you or your family have a lawn, garden, or potted plants that you water regularly? Irrigation—or the artificial application of water to plants and landscaping—accounts for over two-thirds of the world's freshwater consumption (U.S. Geological Survey, 2016)! While that total includes farms, in the United States landscape irrigation still accounts for almost one-third of residential water use. As much as half of that water is wasted due to inefficient watering methods (WaterSense,… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Plants need nitrogen to grow healthy stems and leaves. Although nitrogen is the most abundant element in the air we breathe, that form of nitrogen cannot be used by plants. Nitrogen contained in fertilizer, on the other hand, is readily taken up by plants. In this experiment, you will compare plants grown without nitrogen fertilizer to plants grown with nitrogen fertilizer. Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Are all reds the same? Find out in this science fair project! Investigate if the pigments in one type of red flower are different from those in another type of red flower. Flowers contain an assortment of amazing chemicals that produce color. In this plant biology project, you will analyze the colored pigments in different plants' red flower petals using paper chromatography, and compare the pigments in the different flowers. Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Everyone loves the beautiful colors of fall, but where do they come from and how does the change in colors happen? In this project, you will uncover the hidden colors of fall by separating plant pigments with paper chromatography. What colors will you see? Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Have you ever wondered why a plant that grows well in one environment may not survive in a different environment? For example, plants that grow well in a wet jungle would probably not do so well in a dry desert, lacking enough water. This is because plants have adapted to their specific environment. Some plants have even adapted to tolerate chemicals that would usually be toxic, such as various heavy metals. In this plant biology science project, you will investigate whether different… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Can you imagine Valentine's Day or Halloween without chocolate? Well, if you're a chocolate lover brace yourself for the bad news. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), "Worldwide demand for cacao now exceeds production." If there isn't enough cacao, the major raw ingredient for chocolate, then the chocolate supply will dwindle. Hang on! Before you start rushing to the store to buy all the chocolate you can get your hands on, a solution is already in the works. In… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Fresh strawberries and summer just go together. Walking through the local farmers' market on a warm day, the bright, red strawberries call out to you, beckoning you to buy them and take them home. The next day, as you get ready to savor the delicious berries, you notice that yesterday's juicy, red strawberries are now covered in...eewwww, mold! In this cooking and food science fair project, you will investigate thermotherapy and whether this technique can preserve strawberries and prevent mold… Read more
Science Fair Project Idea
Do you like your strawberry jelly with or without the seeds? Are you glad to have a seed-free watermelon, or do you enjoy spitting the seeds into the garden? You might not like to find seeds in your fruit, but fruit is the plant's way of dispersing seeds to make new plants. How many seeds can be dispersed for each type of fruit? As they say, in one end and out the other! Read more

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Additional Information


Free science fair projects.