# Magic Squares *

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 Areas of Science Pure Mathematics Difficulty Time Required Average (6-10 days)
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## Abstract

A magic square is an arrangement of numbers from 1 to n2 in an n x n matrix. In a magic square each number occurs exactly once such that the sum of the entries of any row, column, or main diagonal is the same. You can make several magic squares and investigate the different properties of the square. Can you make an algorithm for constructing a Magic Square? Can you show that the sum of the entries of any row, column, or main diagonal must be n(n2+1)/2? Are there any other hidden properties of a Magic Square? Show the differences between special instances of the Magic Square, like the Lo Shu, Durer, Ben Franklin, or Sator Magic Squares. Can magic squares be constructed in 3 dimensions? You can also investigate other shapes, like magic circles and stars (Alejandre, 2006; Pickover, 2002). Or test the question, "Is there really no math in Sudoku?" (Hayes, 2006)

## Bibliography

• Hayes, B., 2006. "Unwed Numbers: The mathematics of Sudoku, a puzzle that boasts "No math required!" American Scientist Online: Vol 94, number 1, page 12. [accessed: 5/1/06] http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.669.9080&rep=rep1&type=pdf
• Pickover, C. A., 2002. The Zen of Magic Squares, Circles, and Stars: An Exhibition of Surprising Structures Across Dimensions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

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### MLA Style

Science Buddies Staff. "Magic Squares." Science Buddies, 22 Jan. 2019, https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Math_p036/pure-mathematics/magic-squares?class=AQV8DagVKI0wXLwcJTqlNTSqUsiFf6jVFyuH9b6ylMxlqyfJXi4ua7dMCAHNaAofmphakA0oNZlrQRQhAdwANjkv. Accessed 18 Jan. 2020.

### APA Style

Last edit date: 2019-01-22

## Experimental Procedure

For this science project you will need to develop your own experimental procedure. Use the information in the summary tab as a starting place. If you would like to discuss your ideas or need help troubleshooting, use the Ask An Expert forum. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions and offer guidance if you come to them with specific questions.

If you want a Project Idea with full instructions, please pick one without an asterisk (*) at the end of the title.

## Share your story with Science Buddies!

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