|Planning and Carrying Out Investigations. Make directional hypotheses that specify what happens to a dependent variable when an independent variable is manipulated.
Asking Questions and Defining Problems. Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the school laboratory, research facilities, or field (e.g., outdoor environment) with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on a model or theory.
Analyzing and Interpreting Data. Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.
Solutions. Make a quantitative and/or qualitative claim regarding the relationship between dependent and independent variables.
Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena.
|PS1.B: Chemical Reactions.
Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules that are matched by changes in kinetic energy.
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy. These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space.
|Cause and Effect. Changes in systems may have various causes that may not have equal effects.
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity. Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another (e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).
Stability and Change. Change and rates of change can be quantified and modeled over very short or very long periods of time. Some system changes are irreversible.