An astronomer could...
|Help plan a voyage to another planet or the moon and explain the mission to the public.||Determine the composition of a planet, its atmosphere, and its moons.|
|Investigate how galaxies are formed and if supermassive black holes live at their centers.||Use sensitive radio telescopes to spot comets and asteroids with the potential to impact Earth.|
Key Facts & Information
|Overview||Astronomers think big! They want to understand the entire universe—the nature of the Sun, Moon, planets, stars, galaxies, and everything in between. An astronomer's work can be pure science—gathering and analyzing data from instruments and creating theories about the nature of cosmic objects—or the work can be applied to practical problems in space flight and navigation, or satellite communications.|
|Key Requirements||Curiosity, imagination, ability to visualize abstract concepts, and strong math and analytical skills.|
|Subjects to Study in High School||Chemistry, physics, computer science, algebra, geometry, calculus; if available, Earth science, statistics|
|Projected Job Growth (2014-2024)||Little or No Change (-2% to 2%)|
Training, Other Qualifications
Because most jobs are in basic research and development, a doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement for astronomers. Master's degree holders qualify for some jobs in applied research and development, whereas bachelor's degree holders often qualify as research assistants or for other occupations related to astronomers.
Education and Training
A PhD degree in physics or closely related fields is typically required for basic research positions, independent research in industry, faculty positions, and advancement to managerial positions. This prepares students for a career in research through rigorous training in theory, methodology, and mathematics.
Additional experience and training in a postdoctoral research appointment, although not required, is important for astronomers aspiring to permanent positions in basic research in universities and government laboratories. Many astronomy PhD holders ultimately teach at the college or university level.
Holders of a bachelor's or a master's degree in astronomy often enter an unrelated field. However, they are also qualified to work in planetariums running science shows, to assist astronomers doing research, and to operate space-based and ground-based telescopes and other astronomical instrumentation.
Mathematical ability, problem-solving and analytical skills, an inquisitive mind, imagination, and initiative are important traits for anyone planning a career in astronomy.
Nature of the Work
Most astronomers do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Astronomers who make observations with ground-based telescopes may spend many hours working in observatories; this work usually involves travel to remote locations and may require working at night. Astronomers whose work depends on grant money often are under pressure to write grant proposals to keep their work funded.
Astronomers may need to work at odd hours to observe celestial phenomena, particularly those working with ground-based telescopes.
On the Job
- Study celestial phenomena, using a variety of ground-based and space-borne telescopes and scientific instruments.
- Analyze research data to determine its significance, using computers.
- Present research findings at scientific conferences and in papers written for scientific journals.
- Measure radio, infrared, gamma, and x-ray emissions from extraterrestrial sources.
- Develop theories, based on personal observations or on observations and theories of other astronomers.
- Raise funds for scientific research.
- Collaborate with other astronomers to carry out research projects.
- Develop instrumentation and software for astronomical observation and analysis.
- Teach astronomy or astrophysics.
- Develop and modify astronomy-related programs for public presentation.
- Calculate orbits and determine sizes, shapes, brightness, and motions of different celestial bodies.
- Direct the operations of a planetarium.
Companies That Hire Astronomers
Explore what you might do on the job with one of these projects...
- A Matter of Degrees: How Does the Tilt of Earth's Axis Affect the Seasons?
- A Matter of Time
- A Puzzling Parallax
- Asteroid Mining: Gold Rush in Space?
- Calculating the Circumference of the Earth
- Catching Stardust
- Changing Constellations
- Correlation of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Solar Sunspot Cycle
- Counting Sunspots on an Image of the Sun
- Craters and Meteorites
- Detecting Exoplanets Using Transit Photometry—Advanced
- Dirty Snowballs: How a Comet's Size Affects How Fast It Melts
- Finding the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy Using Globular Star Clusters
- How Does the Intensity of Light Change with Distance?
- How Far Away Is the Moon?
- How Much Mass Is Needed to Make a Body Round?
- How Old Is the Universe?
- How Soon After Sunset Does the Sky Become Dark?
- Lunar Crater Counting
Do you have a specific question about a career as an Astronomer that isn't answered on this page? Post your question on the Science Buddies Ask an Expert Forum.
- American Astronomical Society: www.aas.org
- O*Net Online. (2016). National Center for O*Net Development. Retrieved July 1, 2017, from https://www.onetonline.org/
- TPT. (2006). Real Scientist: Marianne Takamiya. DragonflyTV, Twin Cities Public Television. Retrieved March 1, 2019, from https://www.pbs.org/video/scigirls-tpt-scientist-profile-galactic-astronomer/
We'd like to acknowledge the additional support of:
- Northrop Grumman Corporation
Explore Our Science Videos
10 Robotics Projects Kids Can Really Make!
Why Do Apples and Bananas Turn Brown? - STEM activity
4 Easy Robot Science Projects for Kids