Ask an Expert: Orientation Materials
Ask an Expert Online Orientation / Training Guide
Thank you for volunteering to help us with Ask an Expert. The Ask an Expert Program provides students with the opportunity to get answers to specific questions they have about their science projects from experienced high school students and professional scientists. This Orientation Guide contains background information, tips, and suggestions to help you optimize your interactions with students.
Table of Contents
Volunteering with Ask an Expert
Being an "Expert"
- Your Role as a Science Ambassador
- Your Responsibilities
- Science Buddies' Standards for Helpful and Valuable Expert
- Getting Outside Help
- Acquainting Yourself with Our Online Resources
- Guidelines for Handling Inquiries
Being a Successful Mentor
- Mentoring in an Online Environment
- Mentoring Tips
- Understanding Your Audience
- What to Expect from Students
Using the Forums
- General Information on Using the Forums
- Subscribing to Topics and Forums
- Posting Attachments in a Post
- Understanding Timelines
The Science Buddies Ask an Expert Forums offer personalized help to students who are working on a science fair project by providing an online environment where students can post questions about their projects and receive quality responses and advice from talented high school students and professional scientists in academia and various industries The Forums are available for questions regarding K-12 science fairs and science fair projects from all fields of science and engineering and are open to the public. The majority of people who use the Forums, however, are students. Approximately 30% of traffic on the Forums is from students in grades K-5, 40% is from students in grades 6-8, and 30% is from students in grades 9-12.
Experts point students in the right direction, give research advice, and help them refine and improve their experiments. The objective is for students to have more fun and less frustration as they complete their science fair projects, while getting the guidance and support that might not be available from their parents or teachers. The Ask an Expert forums also support the repository of over 1,150 science fair project ideas on the Science Buddies site giving students a resource for troubleshooting as they work through Science Buddies.
We recruit Experts from a wide variety of backgrounds, ranging from top high school students to seasoned science professionals. The level of "mentoring" experience held by our Experts varies—some of our Experts have volunteered with Science Buddies for numerous years, while for others this will be their first time volunteering on the Forums. Since our Forums are open to the public, you will be able to identify official Experts by the "Expert" tag that appears just beneath their username.
Moderators are seasoned Experts we have selected to help us ensure that the quality of the responses on the Forums remains high and that all inquiries receive a timely response. Moderators help ensure student posts are placed in appropriate forums (and are not cross-posted). Moderators also assist Science Buddies in monitoring the forums to ensure that our policies regarding personal information are upheld for the safety of all participants. Moderators also are on the look-out for spam (including URLs to personal sites or other advertising strategies). You can identify a moderator by the "Moderator" tag that appears just beneath his or her username.
You might see posts made by users that have a "Former Expert" tag beneath their username. These posts were made by users who volunteered as Experts in years past, but are not doing so currently.
Students, Parents, and Teachers:
The Ask an Expert Program is designed primarily to benefit students. The Forums are open to the public, but most users are students. From time to time, parents will post questions on the Forums, asking for assistance as they help their students with their science fair projects. This most commonly occurs in the Grades K-5 Forums. Teachers also occasionally post questions on the Forums. These users do not have a tag beneath their names identifying them. However, you can determine whether a user is a student, parent, or teacher by the information provided on the right-hand side of a user's post. Student users, for example, will have "Student" listed as their occupation.
The Science Buddies Ask an Expert Forums are entirely open to the public, so sometimes, individuals who are not official Science Buddies Experts register and contribute their advice.
The Ask an Expert forums are designed to offer support for K-12 science fair projects. From time to time, adult users or students working on graduate projects post questions beyond the scope of K-12 science fairs. Please simply reiterate that the forums are designed for K-12 support only.
Contact Science Buddies
The Science Buddies staff is always available to answer your questions. If you have a comment or concern you would like to address privately with Science Buddies, please email us at email@example.com. We will generally reply within 24 hours. Please do not hesitate to contact us. If you have questions you would like to raise about the Ask an Expert forums, about a specific topic or post, or if you require assistance from either Science Buddies representatives or from other Experts, posting in the "Expert Forum" is also a good approach. Both Science Buddies representatives and Experts monitor the Expert Forum and may be able to assist with your question.
Getting Started as an ExpertThe steps to getting successfully registered for the current season of Ask an Expert are as follows:
Orientation: Review this orientation information.
Register for an Ask an Expert account: If you are new to Ask an Expert, please register on the Ask an Expert Forums by visiting the Ask an Expert Board Index and clicking the "Log In" link at the top right of the page. (See the screen shot in the Descriptions and Organization of the Forums section.) You will receive a link in email to confirm and activate your new AAE account. After you have registered on the Forums, we recommend you take some time to look around and familiarize yourself with the AAE online environment.
Background Check: Once you have completed the orientation and set up your Ask an Expert account, Science Buddies conducts a background screening. (This is done yearly for all volunteers.)
Scheduling: Science Buddies will contact you about scheduling you for a specific day of the week and forum, based on your preferences. You will be asked to confirm your schedule.
AAE Status Updated: Your status at AAE will be changed to "Expert."
All Set: You can start checking in on your assigned day of the week and helping students with their projects and questions!
Please keep in mind that all conversation and interaction with students will take place only on the Ask an Expert Forums. Please do not invite or encourage students to contact you via email outside of AAE. All communication must remain within the Ask an Expert forum.
Note for High School Experts: It is important to remember that you must be an active participant in the Science Buddies Ask an Expert Program to receive community service credit. An active participant is one who logs in regularly, checks the Forums, and responds thoughtfully to questions. The algorithm used to calculate your community service credit takes into consideration your active involvement in the forums. The only way to receive credit is to spend time reading posts and contributing to the forums by making thoughtful and thorough responses to student queries.
If you have any questions about how assignments to the Forums are made, or if you are unclear about your assignment, please do not hesitate to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
When you applied with Science Buddies, you marked your preference for the day of the week you would like to cover and the grade range with which you feel most comfortable interacting. Based on your preferences, you will be assigned to respond to inquiries in a particular Forum on a particular day. You will be responsible for checking in at Ask an Expert and responding to any inquiries that are posted in your assigned Forum on your assigned day. For example, if you were assigned to check the K-5 Physical Sciences Forums on Monday, you would be responsible for logging into the Ask an Expert Forums every Monday and responding to any new topics or posts in that Forum.
Please be aware that given the high traffic we experience on Ask an Expert at peak points in the school year (and related to science fair dates and cycles), there may be multiple experts scheduled on each day of the week. Most likely, you are not the only expert logging into your forum, so don't be surprised if you find a new post has been responded to by another expert. You are still encouraged to reply to the student's question, to add additional information to any expert reply already given, and to continue the thread. Students will benefit from the range of expertise that many experts bring to their projects. Be aware that it sometimes happens that an expert has been working with a student already and may check in and respond to a post on an unscheduled day.
If you will be unavailable (or have no Internet access) during one of your scheduled days, please post a note in the Expert Forum. For example, if you are going on vacation or on a business trip, provide your fellow Experts with the days of your absence in advance and make sure someone is able to cover for you. If no one is available, then please let us know at email@example.com so we can make sure someone will cover for you.
It is important to remember that in order for the Expert Forum to work, you will need to check it regularly (every time you log in), to see if there are any requests for help that you may be able to answer. One easy way to see if there are any new posts in the Expert Forum is to subscribe to the Forum. For details on how to subscribe to a Forum, see the section Subscribing to Topics and Forums.
Descriptions and Organization of the Forums
To better help you respond to the questions posted on the Forums, we have organized the Forums in two ways: by grade level and by subject area. Because the nature of student questions as well as the content of Expert responses to a question will vary based on the grade level of the student asking it, we have divided the Forums into three sections: Grades K-5, Grades 6-8, and Grades 9-12. Within each of these divisions, we have further divided the Forums by area of science: Life, Earth, and Social Sciences; Physical Science; and Math and Computer Science.
The following are descriptions of the Forums that are visible to the public:
- Grades K-5: Students, parents, or teachers of students in grades K-5 should post
their science project questions here. Responses in this Forum will cover science
concepts and the science fair at an elementary school level.
- Grades 6-8: Students, parents, or teachers of students in grades 6-8 should post
their science project questions here. Responses in this Forum will cover science
concepts and the science fair at a middle school level.
- Grades 9-12: Students, parents, or teachers of students in grades 9-12 should
post their science project questions here. Responses to posts in this Forum will
cover science concepts and the science fair at a high school level.
- Advanced Science Competitions (Intel ISEF, Intel STS, Siemens Competition, JSHS,
etc.: This Forum is dedicated to students preparing for advanced competitions like
- Careers in Science: This Forum is new to Ask an Expert for the 2009-2010 season and correlates with a new area of the Science Buddies site. Thanks to a generous grant from the Noyce Foundation, Science Buddies is developing a library of profiles for science-related careers. These profiles are linked to relevant project ideas, enabling students to find out more about a career related to a project s/he may have enjoyed. Similarly, students can explore science careers and projects related to those careers by using the "Science Careers" tab on the Science Buddies website. Questions in this forum might relate to individual careers or to the Science Careers area of the Science Buddies site.
Please note that the Grades K-5, Grades 6-8, and Grades 9-12 Forums are further
subdivided into Life, Earth, and Social Sciences; Physical Science; and Math and
Computer Science Forums.
- In the Life, Earth, and Social Sciences Forum: across all grade levels,
questions might be posted about science projects relating to biology, biochemistry,
genomics, microbiology, molecular biology, pharmacology/toxicology, zoology, human
behavior, archaeology, anthropology, political science, sociology, geology, environmental
science, oceanography, seismology, weather, or the atmosphere.
- In the Physical Science Forum across all grade levels, questions might be
posted about projects relating to aerodynamics or hydrodynamics, astronomy, chemistry,
electricity, electronics, physics, or engineering.
- In the Math and Computer Science Forum across all grade levels, questions
might be posted about projects relating to computer science or pure mathematics
(such as probability, statistics, geometry, etc.).
The following screen shot shows the main page of the Grades K-5 forum. Your volunteer assignment asks that you volunteer in one or more of these specific forums.
Remember that you will be responsible for answering the questions that come into your assigned Forum on your assigned day. See the Scheduling section for complete details about your assignment. As always, please feel free to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any questions.
Your Role as a Science Ambassador and as a Role Model
Your interest in and knowledge of science helps students see how exciting science can be. Please keep this in mind when talking with the students on the Forums. When appropriate, bring in examples from your work or research and help students see the practical applications of science. Real-world applications of science help make the abstract more relevant for students, and can spark new fascinations and curiosities about the world around them. As a role model, your general attitude will be more influential than anything you say, so stay positive about science in your interactions with the students.
Responding to Inquiries:
This is your opportunity to serve as a mentor to students, by sharing your knowledge and experiences with them. You should help them by answering questions, guiding them through key leverage points, reviewing their work, and offering tips and suggestions to help them improve their work. You are not alone, however! If there is anything you are uncertain about, or if you come across questions you cannot answer, there are plenty of other Experts to step in and help you out! At the end of this training guide, we have provided a number of examples of real posts that we have received on the Forums. We encourage you to take a look at these examples to get a sense of the types of questions posted on the Forums. As always, the Science Buddies staff is here to help and support you. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to email us at email@example.com.
"Topics" in the Forums:
The Forums have a standard way of listing each message topic that has been established. When a student posts an initial question on the Forums, they establish a "topic." While we encourage our experts to work together as a team and to add to the discussion that may arise with a student topic, if you are the first Expert to respond to a topic—and your response fits the Science Buddies' Standards for Helpful and Valuable Expert Replies— we want you to monitor the student's thread until its conclusion. This means that you should check to see if there are follow-up questions in the topic. As the first Expert to reply to the student's question, the student may reference you by name and may expect that you will be the Expert answering subsequent questions. When possible, we hope you can address follow-up questions throughout the week. Many topics will require a single answer, and the student will have gotten what s/he needed from Ask an Expert. Some topics, however, are more in-depth and require more back-and-forth between Expert and student as the student refines a project, works toward a stronger starting point, or works through problems encountered during the process.
Note: One way to monitor topics you are working with is to subscribe to them. See the section Subscribing to Topics and Forums for details on how to do this.
As you monitor topics with specific students, you may be posting messages on days other than the one you were assigned. Please continue to also check the Forums on your assigned day, as this ensures all messages receive a response in a timely manner. Our goal at Ask an Expert is to respond to all topics within 24 hours.
Keeping Your Responses on the Ask an Expert Forums:
As we look at the number of people viewing posts on the Forums, it is evident that Ask an Expert is a valuable resource for students beyond those who actually originate the questions. Many students search the Forum posts for advice and tips about their own science projects – even if they don't register and don't ask their own questions. In order to maintain the integrity of Ask an Expert as a resource and to reach as many students as possible, we ask that you keep discussions only on the Forums. You should never shift conversations to the telephone, personal email, or instant messenger.
Keeping all conversations on the Forums is important not only to allow other students to benefit from this growing resource, but to protect the safety and privacy of the students. Science Buddies staff monitor the Forums to ensure that no personal information (e.g. telephone numbers, email addresses, chat or messenger names, etc.) is posted on the Forums and will remove such information if found. Experts who deliberately attempt to shift a conversation off the Forums may be asked to leave the program. If you discover an email address or personal contact information on the discussion board, please notify us immediately at firstname.lastname@example.org so we can remove it.
If you have an external resource that could help answer a question (i.e. a co-worker or contact at another company), please have that person register on Ask an Expert and answer the question in the appropriate Forum. Alternatively, you may copy and paste an external resource's response into the Forums. See the section Getting Outside Help for more details.
Providing and Maintaining the Quality of Posts:
Ask an Expert has become a valuable resource for students conducting science fair projects, and we would like to ensure that the Program continues to be a high-quality resource. As you reply to posts, please keep in mind that this is your chance to share your knowledge, not only with the individual students posting the questions, but with others who have similar questions and are simply browsing the Forums for answers. To help us maintain the value of the Forums, we ask that you provide specific and detailed information and offer concrete answers, not just generic answers they could find on other websites or a bunch of links to other websites. Be thorough in your responses, adding any personal tips or experiences, and offer solutions to problems that will be useful for anyone else looking for similar information (see Examples 1.1 - 1.5 below).
While we have assigned each of our Experts a specific day to cover, you may sometimes find that someone else has answered a new post on the day you check in at Ask an Expert. If the topic is in your area of expertise, you have something to add to the discussion, or you feel the response did not adequately or thoroughly respond to the inquiry, please post a follow-up Expert response elaborating on the previous post (see Example 2 below). To determine whether a post is adequate, ask yourself "Is there anything else I would have said in response to this question?" Please remember to be respectful of your fellow Experts and others who post on our Forums.
Science Buddies' Standards for Helpful and Valuable Expert Replies
There are a number of important guidelines that we ask you keep in mind when responding to questions and topics at Ask an Expert:
- Remember that you are responding primarily to students. The tone of your replies needs to take into account the fact that the reader may be a student. We encourage you to be friendly in your replies. There are times when it is clear a student is overlooking something obvious or may be trying to find an easy answer. Please keep your tone friendly as you redirect and assist students.
- Talk at the right level for the student. Your responses should use vocabulary that the student can understand. If a student is already having problems with his or her project or area of research, sending a reply full of academic terminology or more appropriate for a scientific journal will likely not be helpful. One of the challenges of mentoring K-12 students is being able to take your expertise and formulate it so that a student at any level can understand and successfully move forward with his or her project.
- Read the student's post fully. A student who has arrived at Ask an Expert seeking science fair project help may have trouble articulating his or her question initially, or there may be many questions piled one on top of another in a student's post. Be sure and read carefully.
- Post thoughtful replies. Your reply to a student's question or post should indicate you fully read the question and that you are answering his or her specific question.
- Refrain from posting lists of links. We ask that you not simply post a list of links to materials from a search engine. Sometimes providing links is appropriate, but this should not be the standard approach to responding to questions. If you are redirecting a student to an external site or source, please try and also offer some "response" to the question. The goal of Ask an Expert is not simply to "search" for students.
- Use the Science Buddies website. In addition to over 1,150 science fair project
ideas, Science Buddies offers a wide range of resources designed to give students
the key information they need to work on a science fair project from start to finish.
Before sending a student to another website, please check the Science Buddies site
to see if a relevant resource exists.
Note about Searching:
- To search the entire Science Buddies website (including the Ask an Expert forums), use the search box that appears in the top right-hand corner of every page.
- To search only within the Ask an Expert forums, use the search function found in the "Quick Links" drop-down box.
- See the screen shot in General Information on Using the Forums.
- Be part of the "team" of Experts. When replying in a thread to which other Experts have also replied, be sure and acknowledge the fact that others have replied. You may not fully agree with an Expert's reply, or you may feel something has been left out that could be valuable to the student. Or, there may simply be many ways to answer the student's question. We encourage you to make additional posts, but it is important that interactions between Experts are handled professionally and with respect. This can be as simple as saying, "In addition to the advice offered by Expert J, I would encourage you to consider..." or "I would agree with what Expert M has suggested, but you might also want to..." This courtesy gives a more integrated feel to Ask an Expert and shows that Experts can and do work together as a team, listen to one another, engage in back and forth dialogue, and may have different opinions.
You will find other helpful reminders in the list of Mentoring Tips in this orientation guide.
Getting Outside Help
Sometimes you might be stumped by a post, but you know someone who could answer the question. If you find yourself in this situation, we ask that you do one of the following:
- Contact your friend or colleague to get the answer and then post it in the appropriate Forum yourself or
- Ask your friend or colleague to register with Ask an Expert and directly post a reply to the message.
Please remember to keep all discussions with students on our Forums. Another alternative is to post a topic in the Expert Forum asking that one of your fellow Experts respond to that query. For information about the Expert Forum and how to ask for help from fellow Experts through it, see the subsection Expert Forum within the Acquainting Yourself with Our Online Resources section.
Acquainting Yourself with Our Online Resources
We have developed a number of online resources to aid you as you work with students on the Forums. The following is a summary of resources we encourage you to use. You can access many of these resources by using the colored tabs located at the top of the Ask an Expert Forums. If you have questions about any of these resources, please do not hesitate to contact us at email@example.com.
The Expert Forum is a place where the Science Buddies staff will keep you updated on information valuable to you in your role as an Expert. After you've been through orientation and officially assigned to an Ask an Expert forum, your status will be updated within Ask an Expert. At that point, you should have access to the Expert Forum once you log into the Science Buddies Ask an Expert Board Index (the Forum should appear directly beneath the Careers in Science Forum). Using the Expert Forum, you can communicate with your fellow Experts, flag any problems you encounter within the forums, keep up to date with any Science Buddies announcements or updates that may be relevant to volunteering in the forums, or contact Science Buddies staff and the Ask an Expert moderators. (Note: You will not have access to the "Experts" forum until we've classified your account as an "Expert" account and set you up with an official assignment. )
At times you may find yourself with a question that is difficult for you to answer or that lies outside of your expertise. You can request help from another Expert by using the Expert Forum. Our goal is to get the best possible answer for each of the questions posted in the Forums, so if you are in doubt about your ability to provide a thorough answer, post a message on the Expert Forum asking for help. When you post a message to the Expert Forum, you should note in the subject line the area of science for which you are seeking an Expert, so anyone scanning the Expert Forum can quickly see if his or her services are needed. Here is an example of a subject line: "Expert Needed in Biochemistry." You should provide the following information in the body of the post so the readers can easily find and reply to the inquiry: Forum Name, Topic, Date of Post, and a link to the topic. You are also welcome to consult outside sources, such as friends and colleagues. Please follow the guidelines provided in the section titled Getting Outside Help.
Science Fair Project Guide
We designed the Science Fair Project Guide to help students, parents, teachers, and Experts "refresh" their memories on the various steps in the scientific method and the pieces of a science fair project. Be sure to familiarize yourself with the Project Guide's contents, as it is a very useful tool for helping you answer general questions. Sections of the Project Guide contain:
- A "Key Info" section at the top of the page, outlining important points that need to be kept in mind and understood as that particular step of the science fair project is completed.
- Explanation of the concepts and ideas summarized in the "Key Info" section. These explanations are organized under various subheadings.
- Several examples to help the students understand what a particular step of their science fair projects should be like.
- A checklist to guide students, parents, teachers, and Experts as they "grade" or evaluate that particular step of the project.
Many times the information a student needs can be found in the Project Guide, and you can direct the student to the appropriate section of the Project Guide in your reply. (When referencing Science Buddies' projects or resources in your replies, please always include the appropriate urls so they can be easily accessed.)
Topic Selection Wizard
The Topic Selection Wizard (TSW) is an interactive tool that helps students narrow down their search for a science fair project idea. By having students answer a series of questions, the TSW identifies areas of science that a student will likely find interesting and then directs the student to Project Ideas in those areas of science. This is a great tool you can reference for students who post the inevitable question about having trouble finding a project idea.
Science Buddies has a library containing more than 900 science fair Project Ideas that students can use as the basis for their projects. The Project Ideas are sorted by area of science and graded by difficulty level. Each Project Idea lists the amount of time the science project may be expected to take, the cost of materials required for the project, prerequisites needed to complete the project, and potential safety concerns. Contained in each Project Idea is an introduction; a list of terms, concepts, and questions to guide the student's background research; a short bibliography; a list of materials; a detailed procedure; and suggested variations that could be made to the basic Project Idea.
We strongly recommend that you spend some time familiarizing yourself with the Project Ideas that are related to your particular area of science. For details about using our library of Project Ideas to help you respond to student inquiries, please see the subheading Very Specific Questions about a Science Fair Project or Some Aspect of Science in the section Guidelines for Handling Inquiries.
Note: If as you review our library of Project Ideas or respond to questions on the Forums, you discover a specific problem with one of our Project Ideas, please notify us at firstname.lastname@example.org so that we can evaluate the problem and revise the project idea, if necessary. The feedback we receive from AAE regarding individual project ideas helps us ensure our library of project ideas is up to date.
Science Buddies recently launched its Science Careers section. Students working through a Science Buddies science fair project idea can click through to learn more about a relevant science-related career. The career profiles offer salary information, education requirements, links to videos and interviews, and additional background information.
Approximately once a month, you will receive an email newsletter that we send to all Ask an Expert volunteers. In this newsletter, we will post tips and "best practices" for working with Ask an Expert and responding to student inquiries. We will also pass on information regarding important science dates or updates to Science Buddies' materials that may prove helpful in composing your responses.
Guidelines for Handling Inquiries
Ask an Expert is not intended to be "Ask Jeeves," nor is it intended to help lazy students with their Internet searches. The goal of this program is to help students who have specific questions about their projects. We highly value the time that you are contributing to the Ask an Expert Forums, so we have developed some guidelines to help you understand how to answer various types of questions that will be appearing on the Forums. We have provided a number of examples to help you get a sense of the different types of questions you may be asked and how to effectively respond to them. These examples are referred to in the following sections and can be found at the end of this training guide. If you are ever in doubt about how to respond to a particular post, remember that you can always post a topic in the Expert Forum asking for assistance, or email us at email@example.com.
General Questions About Picking a Project Topic:
If the inquiry is very vague, such as, "What should I do for my science fair project?", please direct the student to the Topic Selection Wizard on our website, including the link in your reply (see Example 3). If the inquiry is more specific (e.g., asking for help formulating a proposed question into a good experiment, or whether or not a proposed topic makes a good experiment), then by all means offer them some help and guidance. Our Project Guide section is always a good resource to help you answer these types of questions. For example, if a student were to ask something like "Is my hypothesis good?", you might take a few moments to read through his or her hypothesis, make comments on it, provide the student with a link to the "Hypothesis" section of the Project Guide, and encourage the student to use the checklist to self-evaluate/grade him- or herself and post back with any questions.
General Inquiries About Information Readily Available in An Encyclopedia or
Through a Simple Google Search:
If a question is something simple like, "What is friction?", please first do a search on the Science Buddies website using the search box located at top right of all pages to see if we have relevant resources or Project Ideas that offer background information on the specified topic or area of science. If Science Buddies' materials are available, please note these in your reply and include the urls. In addition (or if there are no Science Buddies' resources available), you may offer a definition and a few links from a Google search or a few offline resources (such as encyclopedias) where the student can find additional information about his or her question.
You may also encourage the student to try his or her own Google search (see Example 4). We ask that you use your best judgment to determine how to answer inquiries of this kind. You are welcome to answer them how you see fit, but we want you to be aware that we prefer that you spend your time on questions that are more specific and that really utilize your knowledge, rather than whose answers can be found easily in an encyclopedia or by a simple online search.
General Inquiries About Science Fair Project Steps or How to Approach a Project:
Again, direct the student to the appropriate section of the Science Fair Project Guide and include the link in your reply. You can access the Project Guide from any page on our website by clicking the "Project Guide" link in the navigation bar at the top of the page.
Very Specific Questions About a Science Fair Project or Some Aspect of Science:
This is where we would like you to spend most of your time—working to help students get answers to specific questions. If there is an inquiry that is outside of your area of expertise and you do not feel comfortable answering it, then please post a message on the Expert Forum, as discussed in the section Acquainting Yourself with Our Online Resources, under the subheading Expert Forum. When responding to inquiries, please make sure you explain your answers thoroughly, explain with simple terminology, and offer links where the student can find the answer himself or herself. If there are safety precautions with a particular experiment, please make sure to mention them in your reply (see Example 5 below). Remember that the replies you make to posts are read and used by many more people than those who post the question.
Students often post questions on the Ask an Expert Forums about specific experiments or project ideas, asking for help troubleshooting a problem or interpreting their data. Some of the questions that are posted on the Ask an Expert Forums may be specifically about one of our Project Ideas. Even if the student is not explicitly using a Science Buddies Project Idea, one of our projects may be similar enough to the student's own that you could refer to it to offer some guidance.
As you respond to students' posts regarding a specific experiment or project idea, we strongly suggest that you do the following:
- Use the search box (located at the top right-hand corner of every page)
to see if the student's project is based on one of our Project Ideas.
This site-wide search box will search the entire Science Buddies website, including the Ask an Expert Forums.
- Please note there is an additional search function in the Ask an Expert Forums located in the "Quick Links" drop-down box. This search will only search within the Ask an Expert Forums. See the screen shot in General Information on Using the Forums.
- If it is a Science Buddies Project Idea, then after reviewing the Project Idea,
you will have a full understanding of the project that the student is trying to
undertake and will then be able to answer the questions more easily. If there is
a problem with the project itself (e.g. the Science Buddies Project Idea describing
the experiment is flawed), then the Expert should help the student resolve the problem
and email the problem to firstname.lastname@example.org
as soon as possible so we can correct the project. See the subheading
Project Ideas in the section Acquainting Yourself with Our
- If the project is not one from the Science Buddies website, but we have something similar in our database of Project Ideas, then you may consider recommending the Science Buddies Project Idea as a source for the student to review since our Project Ideas offer an outline of key terms and concepts, in addition to a list of references in the bibliography section.
As with any discussion board, we occasionally have individuals post random "trash" (or spam) entries. If you encounter any of these, please contact us at email@example.com and we will remove them from the board.
Remember that if you ever have any questions about using the board, you can consult the FAQs, which are accessible through the Board Index. If you are unsure how to respond to a query, you can post a topic in the Expert Forum to that effect (see the section Acquainting Yourself with Our Online Resources under the subheading Expert Forum). And, as always, you are welcome to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org with any problems, questions, concerns, or suggestions that you may have.
Mentoring in an Online Environment
Communicating via online message boards can be tricky. Think carefully about what you write. It is always difficult to communicate through written words alone since there are no additional signs, such as tone of voice, facial expressions, or body language to help someone interpret what you are saying.
- Adjust your expectations to the students' level. This is probably
the hardest thing for any science professional to do, but it is also the most important
thing you can do to ensure a healthy working relationship with the students. Many
of these students are novices to science, and what might seem second nature to you
might be absolutely foreign to them. Please refer to the What to
Expect from Students section for a guide to what you can expect students
of a particular grade level to know. The content of the section
Understanding Your Audience can help you with this adjustment, too.
- Help students learn how to find information about their topic.
Specifically identify some important terms and key concepts they should research.
Specify aspects of the underlying theory the student should understand (at an age-
and grade-appropriate level) to predict, interpret, and understand results (including
relevant equations or mathematical relationships). For example, if a project involves
electric motors, you might ask the student to research the relationship between
the load on the motor and the current it draws. Ask the student to study any equipment
that is relevant to his or her project. The student should understand what the equipment
does, how it works, and why it is used. The student does the work, but receives
specific guidance from you, the Expert.
- If a student is excited about doing a project that seems boring and overdone
to you, don't squash his or her enthusiasm. One of our goals is to get
students interested in and excited about science, and as long as they do the work
themselves, they can learn a lot from a classic project. When a student is doing
a project like this, it is even more important that you help the student incorporate
solid scientific principles into their project, like including an appropriate number
of replicates, well-defined independent, dependent, and controlled variables, and
thorough understanding of the science behind his or her project. Again, the level
of expectation will vary with grade level. A 5th-grade student might be expected
to do a project with three replicates and understand the concept of a fair test,
while a 10th-grade student might be expected to perform 10 replicates and have clearly
identified independent, dependent, and controlled variables. Detailed information
about what to expect from students at various grade levels is provided in the section
What to Expect from Students.
- Make sure the student is following safe experimental guidelines.
While you will not be present to help the student conduct his or her experiment,
do your best to help students be aware of safety risks and follow standard safety
procedures. As you respond to posts, you should make sure to outline any applicable
safety materials and procedures. If the student is using a chemical in his or her
project, consider providing a link to the chemical's MSDS. Emphasize that any potentially
hazardous project should be conducted with adult supervision (see
- Don't assume it's easy for a student to get the money needed to purchase
the materials needed for an experiment. You might be working with students
from more disadvantaged communities, so be creative about helping them to find materials
around the house.
- Share your knowledge and expertise (Science Professionals). Giving
students access to your expertise and experience benefits them enormously. Not only
does it reinforce and expand upon what they find in their own research, but it demonstrates
science and engineering applications in the real world (e.g. "People really do use
this stuff!"). Even if students don't explicitly ask, share anecdotes and tidbits
about how a science background can be applied to the working world. There are so
many interesting careers out there that might surprise students. This is an area
that parents and teachers sometimes don't have the exposure to know. Seeing future
opportunities gives students a reason to pursue the sciences in school, and beyond.
Remember that one of your roles as an Expert is to be a science ambassador.
- Share your knowledge of the science fair process (HS Students).
You might have just gone through a similar experience if you recently completed
a science fair project of your own. Was there anything that you learned that would
have been nice to know in the beginning? Any tips or suggestions you would give
to someone doing a science fair project? Help the students with whom you are working
by sharing some of this knowledge. Remember that one of your roles as an Expert
is to be a science ambassador.
- Review information on "How to do a Science Fair Project." Be familiar
with all the components of a good science fair project and the scientific method
(e.g. hypothesis, data analysis, final report, etc.). Take the time to familiarize
yourself with the information in the Science Fair Project Guide.
attention to the characteristics outlined in the self-evaluation at the end of each
section. Use the checklists to help you review students' work.
- Try to use proper grammar and spelling in your posts. It's important for you to set a positive example for the students.
Understanding Your Audience
When responding to inquiries, one of the most important points to keep in mind is your audience. Are you responding to a question from a parent? A question from a teacher? A question from a student? The type of response you may give to a question is strongly dependent upon who asked it. Consider the following:
- Particularly in the Grades K-5 Forums, parents sometimes post questions on behalf
of their student(s). When responding to a question from a parent, it is important
that you answer the question in such a way that the parent will be able then to
communicate your response to his or her student. Some parents can be quite overwhelmed
when helping their child do a science fair project (see Example
- At times we have had teachers post questions in the Forums. Teachers might be asking
question(s) for a particular student in their class, they may be asking questions
about a project that their class is doing together, or they may be asking questions
about how they can help their students do successful science fair projects. When
addressing a question from a teacher, remember to respond to the question in such
a way that the teacher can not only understand the response, but also then be able
to explain the same information to his or her students in a way that they can then
understand (see Example 7). You may also point teachers
to the wealth of resources Science Buddies provides in the
Hands-on STEM for Your Classroom
section of our website.
- It is very important that when responding to questions from students, you keep the grade level of the student in mind. The purpose of a science fair project is generally very different for a 3rd-grade student than it is for a 7th-grade student, and the goal of a science fair project in the 7th grade is different still from the goal of a project in the 12th grade. In addition, the age and grade level of the student will influence the depth to which you explain scientific concepts. The information provided in the What to Expect from Students section will help you understand this better.
Always remember that if you are ever unsure about how to answer a post, you can always post a topic in the Expert Forum asking for advice or assistance. See the section Acquainting Yourself with Our Online Resources under the subheading Expert Forum. As always, the Science Buddies staff is here to help and support you. If you ever have any questions or concerns, do not hesitate to contact us at email@example.com.
What to Expect from Students
Elementary School, K-5: While the exact purpose of a science fair project varies from teacher to teacher, students doing projects in elementary school (grades K-5) are often primarily doing them to discover that science can be fun and exciting, and also to gain a better understanding of the basic steps of the scientific method. Because getting students excited about science is a goal of many younger students' science fair projects, it is critical that as an Expert you do not squash that interest and curiosity by bogging students (and parents) down in technical details and theoretical intricacies, but rather, explain relevant concepts in simple, easy-to-understand terminology. The table at the end of this section will help you understand what students at different grade levels are expected to know.
Middle School, 6-8: The goal of doing a project for a middle school student (grades 6-8) is still to help the student become interested in science, but the projects are also intended to help the students learn the details of the scientific method and gain scientific knowledge. Appropriate experimental design, accurate data, basic data analysis, and a grade-appropriate understanding of the basic scientific principles behind their projects are expected.
High School, 9-12: For a high school student (grades 9-12), technical rigor is emphasized even more. The students' projects should be thoughtful, well designed, critically analyzed, and the scientific theories and principles that govern their projects should be well understood. The students' use of the scientific or engineering method should be thorough and clearly evident.
A grade-appropriate understanding of the scientific principles behind a student's project is expected for all projects. You must, therefore, customize your responses to questions based on the grade level and maturity of the student. Consider the classic baking soda and vinegar experiment. A grade-appropriate understanding for a 3rd-grade student might be that when the baking soda and vinegar mix, a chemical reaction happens that makes a gas. For a 7th-grade student, a grade-appropriate understanding might (1) recognize that vinegar is diluted acetic acid and baking soda is mostly sodium bicarbonate (2) the baking soda and vinegar experiment is really a two-step chemical reaction, and (3) the gas produced by the reaction is carbon dioxide. A grade-appropriate understanding for a 12th-grade student might consist of all the elements of the previous explanations, as well as the ability to write out the chemical formulas for the reactions, give the chemical names for all of the reactants and products, classify the reactions by type, and be able to do stoichiometric analysis of their particular experiments and the reactions in general.
Not all students are on par for their grade level. Some will be more advanced; others will be far behind. As you mentor through the Forums, you may encounter some high school students who can work on a university-level project and understand the science behind it. You may also encounter a high school student who needs things explained at a 6th-grade level. Getting a feel for the kind of science background a particular student has might be difficult at times, but doing so will make the mentoring experience more enjoyable for yourself and more beneficial for the student.
This table (based on California standards) is an attempt to summarize a typical middle school student's educational preparation. Students in a remedial situation will obviously be below these guidelines, while high school students should (but may not) surpass them. Links to standards in other states appear below the table.
- At the 7th grade level, students will have had little if any previous exposure to the concept of an independent or dependent variable.
- The bibliography that Science Buddies requires will be the first ever for some students. Footnotes are generally first covered in 8th grade.
- The Review of Literature for a middle school science fair project will most likely be the longest paper the student has ever written. Indeed, California standards call for papers of only 1-2 pages in length through the 8th grade.
Clearly, the Science Buddies experience, in addressing these important aspects of learning, will be a key component of the student's education.
|6th Grade Curriculum (or beginning 7th Grade)||7th Grade Curriculum (or beginning 8th Grade)||8th Grade Curriculum (or beginning 9th Grade)|
Focus on Earth Science
Focus on Life Science
Focus on Physical Science
|Investigation & Experimentation||
Students able to:
Students able to:
Students able to:
By the end of grade six, students have acquired the following math
By the end of grade seven, students have acquired the following
|Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra. Through the study of algebra, a student develops an understanding of the symbolic language of mathematics and the sciences. In addition, algebraic skills and concepts are developed and used in a wide variety of problem-solving situations.|
|Writing (Research & Techniques)||
|Writing (Research Reports)||
Able to write research reports of 500-700 words (1-2 typed pages):
Able to write research reports of 500-700 words (1-2 typed pages):
Able to write research reports of 500-700 words (1-2 typed pages):
More on Educational Standards:California www.cde.ca.gov/standards/
New York usny.nysed.gov/teachers/nyslearningstandards.html
- Examples of good, thorough responses to a post on the Forums.
Author Message Student Posted: 30 Dec 2003 04:46 pm Post subject: Brine shrimp I need some help with the most basic part of my science fair project. I am going to study the effect of pH on the growth/life of brine shrimp. I have some good help in the basic process, but am unsure how many brine shrimp I should use in each pH solution. Are there any suggestions/ideas I can get from the Experts? I am not sure if I could get some help on this. Thanks. Expert Posted: 01 Jan 2004 02:46 am Post subject: Re: Brine shrimp
In general, the bigger the sample size, the better.
One possibility would be to start with a large number of brine shrimp for just 3 pH levels at extreme values. (One at very high pH, one medium pH, and one at very low pH). The results of this first run can then help you decide how many brine shrimp to use.
This assumes you have time to do more than one "run" for the experiment.
I did a Google search and found this site on statistics and number of samples:
- Statistical significance and the number of analyses performed
- Why significance of a relation between variables depends on the size of the sample
- Example: "Baby boys to baby girls ratio"
- Why small relations can be proven significant only in large samples
- Can "no relation" be a significant result?
Good luck and let us know if you have more questions.
Author Message Student Posted: 07 Jul 2004 12:42 am Post subject: The sun's reaction I am searching for a hypothetical way to accelerate the reaction of the Sun. I know it sounds moronic, but any information would be helpful. Thank you in advance for your assistance in this matter. Expert Posted: 13 Jul 2004 12:35 am Post subject: Re: The sun's reaction
This is a very interesting question. Basically, you are looking for ways to speed up the nuclear fusion reactions in the Sun (fusing hydrogen to make helium). Here are some websites that may be of interest to you:/starsun/s3.htm
In addition, you can easily find more information on nuclear fusion reactions in the Sun by doing a Google search using that phrase or similar wording.
Give it a try and let me know if you discover anything interesting!
Author Message Student Posted: 23 Feb 2005 11:11 pm Post subject: How to use Standard Deviation results The project is to determine if background stimuli affect performance on a math test. The 50 math problems are the same on all tests. The environment changes (music, TV, silence). The MEAN values are 24.71, 20.03, and 22.36. The STANDARD DEVIATION values are 9.78, 10.12, and 8.71. I am not sure what to do with these values. There are terms I have read about, but do not understand if they apply to my project. For instance, do I want to find if I have STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE? Do I want to find what is the STATISTICAL CORRELATION of the tests? And if I do, how do I do it? Expert Posted: 24 Feb 2005 10:12 am Post subject: Re: How to use Standard Deviation results
Great to see someone concerned with doing statistics correctly on a science fair project! Sounds like the start of a great report.
I think "statistical significance" is a good keyword to describe what you're after. Some other keywords you may find useful are "student's t test" and "significance test."
Basically, the question you want to ask (or at least one of the questions you can ask) is "what are the chances that you could get differences as big as the ones you saw if the environmental changes had *no* real effect on test scores." The answer won't be zero. Since there's some scatter in test scores, even without changing conditions, there's always going to be some chance that what you've observed is just a coincidence. The value of 1 minus the chance that what you've seen is a coincidence is generally considered an estimate of how likely it is the differences you've seen are real. Often that's called a "confidence level." Someone will say, for example, "the results are significant at the 95% confidence level," meaning that there's less than a 5% chance that the differences were just a coincidence.
(A subtle point that you can probably ignore: what that result actually tells you is the chance that *something* was different. Whether or not the different thing is what you are interested in depends on how well the experiment was designed.)
There are a few different approaches one can take to trying to answer that question. The usual method is to assume (or show) that the variation in scores on tests under a single condition are Gaussian. (If it isn't clear what that means, you can probably skip it for now. "Gaussian distribution" and "probability density function" or "Gaussian pdf" are good keywords for more info if you have time and interest.) Assuming that condition is satisfied, which is often true, then you can apply some cookbook statistics formulas to estimate the chances that the differences observed are real. There are some tests best suited to small data sets, which are probably most appropriate for your experiment.
I'm sure I or someone else here can offer some more tips to get you started if you find it hard to know where to begin. There are also a number of good books on the subject, which you might be able to find in a local library. It would probably help to know what math class you're in and how long you have to work on the project, so as to recommend suitable material.
Author Message Student Posted: 01 Nov 2003 02:35 pm Post subject: Global warming effects on the coast line of Florida State
I am in this moment working on my project and I would like to know how can I demonstrate the sea level rising using a model of the State (based on a relief map of 36x 40 inches) and knowing that the level can be raised by the global warming 8 to 30 inches in ten years) I am thinking about using a block of ice and warming it and conducting the melted water to a tank with the model of Florida, but I am not sure how I can translate this process to correspond to the scale of my model of Florida State. Can you help me? Please!
Expert Posted: 04 Nov 2003 05:31 am Post subject: Problems of Scaling
The highest point in Florida is 345 feet above sea level and the average elevation is about 100 feet. Let's say that your scale model exaggerates the height and makes the highest point about 1 inch (most relief maps I've seen make the highest point about 1/2 inch or so). At that scale, a 12-inch rise in sea level would only be 0.0029 inch on your map (scale of 1 inch/345 feet x 1-foot rise = 0.0029 inch). I'm sure that the map itself has an inaccuracy much greater than 0.0029 inch, not to mention that such a small change in the water level would be invisible.
I can think of two possible solutions:
- Simply color in the areas that would be affected, or
- Don't use a map of the entire state; instead do a model of a much smaller region (say an important bay or coastal area) where the highest point is much lower than the 100-foot average for the state. Consequently, the scale rise in sea level could be a much larger number than the value for the state as a whole.
Author Message Student Posted: 15 Jan 2005 02:51 pm Post subject: Different boiling points of water? Why does tap water boil faster than distilled or bottled water? Expert Posted: 17 Jan 2005 04:57 pm Post subject: Re: Different boiling points of water
In my experience, you would usually see the opposite effect. Usually the distilled or bottled water would boil faster than the tap water. The reason for this is what is called boiling point elevation. Boiling point elevation occurs when there are dissolved minerals in the water. Distilled water usually has some of the mineral impurities removed and so you would expect it to boil at exactly 100 degrees C. Tap water is more likely to have dissolved minerals, unless you have some sort of water purifier attached to your tap that can remove them. Therefore, normal tap water should boil at a higher temperature than distilled water.
There are several websites you can check out to learn more about boiling point elevation.
You can also just type it into Google yourself.
It sounds like you might need to check your starting conditions for your experiment. Unless all of your water samples started at the same temperature, one might boil in less time than another, but still be at a higher final temperature. You also need to make sure that you use exactly the same pot on exactly the same burner with exactly the same amount of water under exactly the same conditions to be able to compare two different types of water. It sounds like you measured the amount of time it took to boil the water. It might be more accurate to use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the boiling water in each case to see if there was any difference.
- A good example of adding on to a post.
Author Message Student Posted: 07 Oct 2004 03:15 am Post subject: balloon volume
How do you measure the volume of a balloon? Anyone?
Teacher Posted: 07 Oct 2004 08:02 am Post subject:
Hi! Displacement method is usually used in measuring the volume of objects having irregular shapes! Hope it helped. Julie
Expert Posted: 07 Oct 2004 11:17 pm Post subject: Measuring the Volume of a Balloon
Just in case you aren't sure what the displacement method is, the first thing is to get two buckets (one should be able to fit inside the other with 5-7 cm to spare). Then stack the buckets so that the small one is inside the larger one. Then fill up the small bucket to the brim with water. Fill it as full as possible, as this will give more accurate results. Then, submerge the balloon in the water. Collect the water that spills out of the small bucket with the large bucket. Then measure the volume of the water the balloon spilled out of the bucket. It's that easy!
- A good example of responding to "what should I do for my
science fair project?"-type questions.
Author Message Student Posted: 14 June 2008 6:16 am Post subject: Science Investigatory Project
What could be a good problem in a Science Investigatory Project?
Expert Posted: 14 Jun 2008 8:57 am Post subject: Re: Science Investigatory Project
Welcome to the Ask an Expert Forums. If you go up to the top left-hand portion of this screen, you'll see a link called, "Science Fair Project Ideas." If you click on this link, you'll find many good examples of problems and ideas for science fair projects.
In general, a good science fair problem can be answered by an experiment you have the ability to do. It should also interest you—that will make it much more fun for you to do and the judges will notice it.
Hope that helps!
- A good example of responding to a question that could be
answered by a simple Google search.
Author Message Student Posted: 15 Feb 2008 10:32 am Post subject: If plants grow faster or slower without microorganisms
What is Macronutrients and Micronutrient? What does soil contain?
Expert Posted: 15 Feb 2008 12:39 pm Post subject: Re: If plants grow faster or slower without microorganisms
Macronutrients and micronutrients are nutrients that plants need in order to grow (just like people need certain vitamins and minerals to be healthy, so do plants). Macronutrients are those that the plant needs a lot of (macro means "big" or "large"). Micronutrients are those that plants require small quantities of (micro means "little" or "small"). According to a listing on the website of the University of Wisconsin, Macronutrients: N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S, and Micronutrients: Cl, Fe, B, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, and Ni. (http://www.soils.wisc.edu/~barak/soilsc ... cronut.htm).
Soil is actually quite complicated. As a general definition, soil is consists of weathered rock, material from the atmosphere, decaying plants, animals, and microbes.
These sites provide useful information about soil: http://school.discoveryeducation.com/sc ... ures/soil/ and http://www.epa.gov/gmpo/edresources/soil.html.
Both of these sites were returned by a simple Google search. Try one of your own and you will discover many more useful websites. Let us know what you find out!
- If there are safety concerns with the experiment, please
include them in your reply.
Author Message Student Posted: 25 Oct 2003 05:49 pm Post subject: How well does antibacterial soap work?
I want to do a science fair project on how well antibacterial soaps really work. I talked to a doctor who said I would need to use agar (spelling?) dishes for the experiment. I am not sure what that equipment is or how to get it. He said I should use sterile swabs to take the bacteria off my hands and plate it in the dish. Then I should wash my hands with one of the soaps and use a sterile swab to take what bacteria is still on my hands and put that in the agar dish. He was not sure if I would need some way to incubate the dishes for the bacteria to grow. Do I need to? I would repeat the process for each type of antibacterial soap. I would count the bacteria colonies that grow to tell which soap works the best. Is this the best way to go about this experiment? Where do I get the equipment that I need? Thanks.
Expert Posted: 27 Oct 2003 07:30 pm Post subject:
A biology teacher helped me prepare this response.
I found a description of how to investigate whether coins are covered with germs. That's pretty close to what you're interested in doing, and I'm sure you could modify the procedure to fit your idea. You can find the description here: http://www.science-projects.com/BBMicro-Coins.htm AND this same website also has some information on agar plates (you spelled it correctly!) http://www.science-projects.com/NAplates.htm.
Your science teacher may have the supplies you need. Check with him or her first. (In fact, you should do this experiment at school under your teacher's supervision. See the note about safety below.)
You can either make your own agar plates using powdered agar, or buy them ready to go. You'll see two companies that carry supplies for doing microbiology experiments on our Science Fair Supplies and Materials page, Carolina Biological Supply Company and Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories: http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-far-projects/project_supplies.shtml.
AN IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT SAFETY: You might have a small number of harmful bacteria on your hands that your body's natural defenses can defeat without trouble (even if you put your fingers in your mouth). However, when you "culture" bacteria on an agar plate, you multiply their numbers by many thousands. It's possible that you could get a "colony" of pathogenic bacteria that would be too many in number for your body's defenses, creating the risk that you could get ill if you did not follow the proper safety procedures. The Intel International Science & Engineering Fair specifically prohibits studies involving pathogenic agents or potential pathogenic agents in the home environment. The Illinois State Science Fair bans all projects that take bacteria samples from the body. In almost every science fair you would need to have your project approved by a Scientific Review Committee (SRC). See http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_src.shtml for more details. The bottom line is that you should definitely check the rules your science fair follows before you proceed with this experiment.
Good luck with your project!
- A good example of responding to a question from a parent.
Author Message Parent Posted: Thu Mar 27, 2008 5:49 am Post subject: Capillary action and temperature
My daughter (1st grade, 7 years old) wanted to investigate capillary action for her science fair project. She decided to find out whether temperature affects capillary action in carnations. We put three white carnations in three glasses of red water and put one in the oven at 140 degrees F, one in the refrigerator, and one on the kitchen counter (air temp about 68 degrees F). The carnation in the oven turned completely pink in about 3 hours, then the stem collapsed. The one on the kitchen counter was edged in red in about 5 hours, but 10 hours after that (15 hours after the experiment began) the room-temp carnation has not changed much. The one in the fridge has hardly any red on it at all. We'll have to check the flowers again this afternoon, but I suspect that the two remaining ones will still be white with red edging. I think my daughter can conclude that she found that temp does affect the speed of the capillary action. But one question I can't answer is why the carnation in the oven turned uniformly pink, whereas the other two seem to be just getting edged in red. I do have a theory that it might have to do with the oven drying the carnation out, but I really am not sure...
Thanks in advance for helping me help my daughter.
Expert Posted: Thu Mar 27, 2008 9:57 am Post subject: Re: Capillary action and temperature
Welcome to the Ask an Expert Forum. Those are very interesting results, and a great way for your child to learn about physical and biological sciences. Ideally, you would want to use three or more carnations in each temperature condition, but maybe that would be overkill for a 1st-grade project. Let's assume that the results you saw would be the same in any number of trials. The possible responses to temperature that could affect your results include:
- physical processes affecting transport of water & dye
- biological processes affecting the uptake and redistribution of water due to transpiration through active plant tissues.
Specifically, I can imagine that the pink vs red coloring could be affected by higher rates of diffusion at higher temperature, or more uniform transpiration across the surface of the petal as the plant tries to cool itself by opening more stomata. There might also be physical changes to the plant structure and redistribution of the dye due to desiccation, as you mentioned.
Here are a couple of web pages describing the response of plant and flower transpiration to temperature changes:
- http://www.actahort.org/members/showpdf ... rnr=624_57
- http://books.google.com/books?id=03S6Vb ... n#PPA84,M1
I hope that helps. Good luck!
Parent Posted: Thu Mar 27, 2008 11:12 am Post subject: Re: Capillary action and temperature
Thank you! That is such a big help!
Expert Posted: Thu Mar 27, 2008 12:35 pm Post subject: Re: Capillary action and temperature
Great! Good luck with the project! Please let us know if you have any more questions.
- A good example of responding to a post by a teacher.
Author Message Teacher Posted: Tue Jan 22, 2008 8:14 pm Post subject: Chemical or physical change?
Is the production of "Silly Putty" an example of a chemical or physical change? I've done reading on this...some sites seem to say that the production is the result of mixing/linking of the substances. On the "science-house.org" site, their directions list it as a chemical change. If it is a chemical change, does anyone know the equation? If I'm using polyvinyl acetate (white school glue) and starch....and/or using Borax/water mixture + glue--> silly putty. Is it really a new compound—or is it a mixture (colloid). Thanks. I hate giving out wrong information to my students.
Expert Posted: Tue Jan 22, 2008 11:09 pm Post subject: Re: Chemical or physical change?
From the silly putty frequently asked question page (http://www.sillyputty.com/silly_science ... e_faqs.htm), only the words mixed and mixture of "boric acid and silicone oil" are used. On the other hand, the science-house page that you mention (http://www.science-house.org/CO2/activi ... putty.html) clearly mentions that there are both physical and chemical changes.
So your instinct that a chemical change is involved appears to be correct. I suspect that the formula for the making of silly putty is contained in the patent for silly putty. Unfortunately, all the online databases with patent information appear to be for-profit sites. Maybe you know an attorney who has access to these sites or a fellow Expert can help.
Teacher Posted: Wed Jan 23, 2008 8:42 am Post subject: Re: Chemical or physical change?
Thank you for taking the time to check into this. I'm not looking for the Silly Putty chemical reaction formula—but rather the chemical formula for the "recipe" on your site. 50/50 water & polyvinyl acetate + Borax solution--> "slime/putty". This would show whether or not a physical or chemical change has taken place, correct? My guess is that it is a chemical change—but the silly putty website is what made me question my assumptions. I have some VERY bright kids that ask great questions—and I prefer to give them correct answers—or at least good sources to find those answers!!
Expert Posted: Wed Jan 23, 2008 10:50 am Post subject: Re: Chemical or physical change?
This topic deals with a gray area between the "major" scientific disciplines. It may be too advanced for some 6-8th graders to consider that our definitions of "chemistry" and "physics" can overlap, but this project is a pretty good example. The description from the science house page is: "The borax is called a cross-linker. It chemically "ties together" the long strands of the polyvinyl acetate."
The term "cross-linker" does belong to chemistry, but doesn't that description about tying things together sound suspiciously physical? These sorts of gray areas fall into scientific disciplines like "physical chemistry" or, less commonly, "chemical physics." "The distinction between [chemical physics and physical chemistry] is vague, and workers often practice in each field during the course of their research." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_physics) So the bad news is that there is not a definitive answer to your question of whether this is physics or chemistry. Maybe the good news is that students will be intrigued to hear about this "gray area" of science and to consider what other gray areas might exist.
As far as a chemical formula, this is not a straightforward chemical reaction like "4Fe + 3O2 -> 2Fe2O3". It is typically represented with diagrams. For an example and for advanced discussion of this reaction, see pages 12-16 in http://dwb4.unl.edu/chem_source_pdf/POLY.pdf. You can find much more info by searching for "gluep".
Teacher Posted: Wed Jan 23, 2008 10:05 pm Post subject: Re: Chemical or physical change?
Thanks, everyone! I'm glad I'm not the only one who doesn't have a definitive answer. I have discussed "gray areas" with the students—actually part of why we "study" Silly Putty!! Is it an amorphous solid...or a slow-moving liquid? (They need to answer that and support their answer with the vocabulary and observations they have made—middle-schoolers love to argue—so the idea of gray areas is perfect!!) In our text we are covering "solids, liquids, gases". Under solids—crystalline and amorphous solids are introduced. We grow Borax crystals and review a bit of earth science for the first...and then spend a few days on "the most famous amorphous solid"—Silly Putty. They actually produce 2 types—one using the directions on this site...and another using liquid starch and glue. The students then design labs to product test (elasticity, resilience, viscosity). I love this site for explaining "variables" to them (which is how I ended up using this feature—I was revisiting the site to review your articles on that topic and noticed the "Ask an Expert" feature).
Up to this point, my lab experiences are very guided—this is the first time they will actually write their own from start to finish. It's a good preview of what they will do during their independent science projects later this year. (Which is when I really use your site!!) Our first step was to do some background research—in the form of a guided reading packet that I have compiled from the sillyputty.com site, and others. I challenge them to go online to that site so they can take the quiz and earn their "Masters in Silly Putty" certificate that they print out and bring in for extra credit.
Later, we do a small unit on materials science...and will re-visit this topic of polymers.
Thanks for all of your help...the kids thought it was "cool" that I had "asked an Expert" about what we were doing!!
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