Teach your students how temperature affects chemical reaction rates in this highly visual experiment! Students will investigate color change during the reaction of food color with bleach, and measure the reaction times using Google's Science Journal app.
This lesson helps students prepare for these Next Generation Science Standards
- HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.
This lesson focuses on these aspects of NGSS Three Dimensional Learning:
|Science & Engineering Practices
||Disciplinary Core Ideas
|Planning and Carrying Out Investigations.
Make directional hypotheses that specify what happens to a dependent variable when an independent variable is manipulated.
Asking Questions and Defining Problems.
Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the school laboratory, research facilities, or field (e.g., outdoor environment) with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on a model or theory.
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions.
Make a quantitative and/or qualitative claim regarding the relationship between dependent and independent variables.
Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena.
|PS1.B: Chemical Reactions.
Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules that are matched by changes in kinetic energy.
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy.
These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space.
|Cause and Effect.
Changes in systems may have various causes that may not have equal effects.
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity.
Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another (e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).
Stability and Change.
Change and rates of change can be quantified and modeled over very short or very long periods of time. Some system changes are irreversible.
Materials per group of 2–4 students:
- 200 mL beaker
- Water (ice water, room temperature water and hot tap water)
- 3 mL graduated pipette
- 500 mL measuring cylinder
- 50 mL beaker (alternatively use a disposable 2 oz mini cup)
- Smartphone with a sensor app such as phyphox, available for free on
Google Play for Android devices (version 4.0 or newer) or from the App Store for iOS devices (iOS 9.0 or newer).
Note: Phyphox does not support the light sensor on iOS devices. If you need the light sensor, you have to use Android devices for your experiment. Note that on some devices the light sensor is only updated when there is a coarse change of illuminance. This means that if the light intensity does not change or only changes slightly, the sensor appears to not record any data. The recording will continue once the light intensity changes again. If your experiments allows, it helps to wiggle the phone or the light source (e.g. flashlight) slightly to induce minimal reading fluctuations and keep the sensor active.
- Object to lean the phone against, such as a textbook
Materials that can be shared in the classroom:
- Food coloring (McCormick, Yellow #5) (1 vial, 0.3 oz, for approximately 4 groups)
- Bleach (8.25% hypochlorite)
- Thermometer for liquids
Materials for teacher only:
- Mini cups (2 oz) or 50 mL beakers (3) for teacher demonstration
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this lesson plan.
Reaction rate, chemical reaction, temperature, collision theory
Svenja Lohner, PhD, Science Buddies
- Understand how chemical reactions rates can be controlled and manipulated
- Analyze graphs illustrating the progress of a chemical reaction over time
- Determine chemical reaction rates based on data of empirical investigations
- Explain why chemical reactions are temperature dependent