Jump to main content

Frequency of Outcomes in a Small Number of Trials

144 reviews


Areas of Science
Time Required
Very Short (≤ 1 day)
Material Availability
Readily Available
Very Low (under $20)
Gabriel Desjardins
*Note: For this science project you will need to develop your own experimental procedure. Use the information in the summary tab as a starting place. If you would like to discuss your ideas or need help troubleshooting, use the Ask An Expert forum. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions and offer guidance if you come to them with specific questions.

If you want a Project Idea with full instructions, please pick one without an asterisk (*) at the end of the title.


People often draw conclusions from a small number of observations, and use those conclusions to evaluate the likelihood that an event will take place. But how easy is it to draw the wrong conclusion based on those observations? Will your predictions be accurate if an experiment is only performed a few times? The objective of this project is to determine what happens when a test with two equally-likely outcomes is performed only a small number of times.

You can test this by flipping a coin. A fair coin should have a 50/50 chance of landing either heads or tails. What happens if you flip a coin two times and record the results? What about ten times, twenty times, or even one hundred times? Do this and keep track of the total number of heads and tails for each set of flips. Does your overall result get closer to 50/50 as the number of flips increases? Why could it be potentially misleading to predict the odds of a coin landing heads or tails based on only a few coin flips?


The objective of this project is to determine what happens when a test with two equally-likely outcomes is performed only a small number of times.


  • Wikipedia Contributors (2014, February 24). Bernoulli Trial. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
icon scientific method

Ask an Expert

Do you have specific questions about your science project? Our team of volunteer scientists can help. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot.


Show, using Bernoulli trials, what the likelihood of each outcome is.


If you like this project, you might enjoy exploring these related careers:

Career Profile
Statisticians use the power of math and probability theory to answer questions that affect the lives of millions of people. They tell educators which teaching method works best, tell policy-makers what levels of pesticides are acceptable in fresh fruit, tell doctors which treatment works best, and tell builders which type of paint is the most durable. They are employed in virtually every type of industry imaginable, from engineering, manufacturing, and medicine to animal science, food… Read more
Career Profile
Life is full of risks to both people and property. Actuaries predict the chances that future negative events will occur in a person's life, and then think of ways to reduce those chances, or reduce the impact of those negative events. Actuaries help bring peace of mind to both families and to businesses. Read more

News Feed on This Topic

, ,

Cite This Page

General citation information is provided here. Be sure to check the formatting, including capitalization, for the method you are using and update your citation, as needed.

MLA Style

Science Buddies Staff. "Frequency of Outcomes in a Small Number of Trials." Science Buddies, 20 Nov. 2020, https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Math_p006/pure-mathematics/frequency-of-outcomes-in-a-small-number-of-trials. Accessed 7 June 2023.

APA Style

Science Buddies Staff. (2020, November 20). Frequency of Outcomes in a Small Number of Trials. Retrieved from https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Math_p006/pure-mathematics/frequency-of-outcomes-in-a-small-number-of-trials

Last edit date: 2020-11-20
Free science fair projects.