Students use their knowledge about how healthy heart valves function to design, construct and implant prototype replacement mitral valves for hypothetical patients' hearts. Building on what they learned in the associated lesson about artificial heart valves, combined with the testing and scoring of their prototype heart valve designs in this activity, students discover the pros and cons of different types of artificial heart valves based on materials, surgery requirements, and lifespan.
Because diseases of the heart and circulatory system are a leading cause of death in the U.S., artificial heart valves are a leading area of research for biomedical engineers. Heart valve diseases can be fatal if the valve is not replaced. Engineers and physicians use the engineering design process to collaborate to design valves made of materials that the human body accepts and function for as long as possible, and that require the least invasive implantation procedures. This process involves asking to identifying the needs and constraints, researching, imagining possible solutions, planning by selecting a promising solution, creating a prototype, testing, and improving the designs so they are dependable solutions to replace non-functioning heart valves.
This lesson helps students prepare for these Next Generation Science Standards
Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.
Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.
Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.
This lesson focuses on these aspects of NGSS Three Dimensional Learning:
|Science & Engineering Practices
||Disciplinary Core Ideas
|Asking Questions and Defining Problems.
Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions.
Engaging in Argument from Evidence.
Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria.
Developing and Using Models.
Develop a model to generate data to test ideas about designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs.
|ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems.
The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions.
ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions.
There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem.
Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions.
ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution.
The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
|Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World.
All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.
The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.
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Human Biology & Health
heart valve, biomedical devices, organs