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Design and 3D-Print Your Own Robot!

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Areas of Science
Time Required
Short (2-5 days)
Material Availability
Specialty materials are required. See project description for details.
Average ($40 - $80)
No issues
Ben Finio, PhD, Science Buddies

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Science Buddies has several fun robotics projects, like the Art Bot: Build a Wobbly Robot That Creates Art and Grasping with Straws: Make a Robot Hand Using Drinking Straws, where you use arts and crafts materials to make part of a robot. Have you ever wanted to design a more-advanced, sturdier, or fancier looking robot? Then computer-aided design (CAD) and 3D printing might be for you; both are simpler than you think! The directions on this page will give you an introduction to these technologies so you can design and print your own robot. Figure 1 shows an arts-and-crafts version of an Art Bot next to a version designed for 3D printing in a CAD program.
An assembled art bot made from a plastic cup, motor, markers, tape, cork and googly eyes   A digital render of a six-legged insect-shaped art bot
Figure 1. (Left) An arts-and-crafts version of the "Art Bot" robot with a plastic cup for a body. (Right) An Art Bot with an insect-shaped body designed in a CAD program (image credit Autodesk Inc., 2014).

We will give you a brief introduction to CAD and 3D printing, then tell you how to get started designing your own printable robot body.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

Engineers and designers use CAD to make computer drawings and models of mechanical things like robots, cars, and airplanes, as well as things you see around you every day like jewelry, toys, and cell phones. This process used to be done by hand, but the invention of computers allowed engineers to edit and update their designs much more quickly; it is much easier to delete a line on a computer than to erase a line on a piece of paper! Today, there are many different types of CAD programs, ranging from simple programs used by young students and hobbyists, to advanced programs used by professional designers and engineers. Figure 2 shows a screenshot of professional CAD software called Inventor.

Screenshot of an engine and propeller rendered in a program called Autodesk Inventor

Screenshot shows a digital rendering of a propeller and engine in the program Autodesk Inventor. A list of files are visible on the left of the screen, and program tabs and options are located at the top of the screen.

Figure 2. Autodesk Inventor is a professional-grade CAD program used by engineers to design things like cars, computers, and jewelry. This screenshot shows an engine (image credit Autodesk Inc., 2014)

3D Printing

Big, expensive 3D printers have been available to large corporations for decades, but smaller, cheaper ones have only recently become available to consumers. 3D printers are machines that can rapidly "print" a three-dimensional object using a design file from a CAD program. There are many different types of 3D printers. Some 3D printers extrude melted plastic through a nozzle (much like a soft-serve ice cream machine dispenses ice cream). The plastic quickly solidifies when it comes in contact with the cool air, gradually building up a solid object, one layer at a time. Other 3D printers use lasers to fuse together bits of a plastic or metal powder, and other types use ultraviolet light to solidify a liquid called a photopolymer. 3D printers come in all shapes and sizes, from hobbyist machines the size of a microwave to big industrial machines the size of a refrigerator. Figure 3 shows a large industrial printer and a small desktop printer. The video below them shows a time-lapse of 3D printing from the Science Buddies project Squishy Robots: Build an Air-Powered Soft Robotic Gripper.

Photo of an oven sized 3D printer   An Ultimaker 3D printer
Figure 3. (Left) A large industrial 3D printer. Note the computers on the floor next to it and the office chair in the background for scale (image credit Wikimedia Commons user Zorro2212, 2013). (Right) A small tabletop 3D printer (image credit Wikimedia Commons user Semenko, 2013).

3D Printing Demo: Printing a Mold for a Soft Robot Gripper
This time-lapse video shows the 3D printing of an object from start to finish.

Designing and 3D-printing Your Own Robot

So, after reading about CAD and 3D printing, do you think you are ready to try designing and printing your own robot? If so, the first step is to decide what type of robot you are going to build.

Once you have chosen the type of robot you will build (see the links above for the circuit parts you will need), you need to find a CAD program to use. Which program you use will depend on your level of experience and budget, but here are some suggestions to get you started:

Finally, you can make or order a 3D-printed version of your design. If you do not have access to a 3D printer, there are several online vendors that will print out your design and mail it to you (for example, in Tinkercad, select the "Design" menu, then "Order a 3D print"). However, even if you do not have a 3D printer at home, you may be able to find access to one in your area. Many schools and public libraries now have 3D printers, and a makerspace may let you use their printer for a fee, or for free if you are a member. Ask an adult to help you look around to find a 3D printer that you can use in your area.


Here are some general background references about CAD and 3D printing:

  • Crawford, S. (n.d.). How 3-D Printing Works. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  • Wikipedia Contributors. (2014, July 18). 3D Printing. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  • Wikipedia Contributors. (2014, July 19). Computer-aided design. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 19, 2014.

Autodesk software and resources are available from the following links:

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Global Connections

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs) are a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all.
This project explores topics key to Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.


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General citation information is provided here. Be sure to check the formatting, including capitalization, for the method you are using and update your citation, as needed.

MLA Style

Finio, Ben. "Design and 3D-Print Your Own Robot!" Science Buddies, 5 Jan. 2022, https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Robotics_p025/robotics/design-and-3d-print-your-own-robot?from=Blog. Accessed 9 Dec. 2023.

APA Style

Finio, B. (2022, January 5). Design and 3D-Print Your Own Robot! Retrieved from https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Robotics_p025/robotics/design-and-3d-print-your-own-robot?from=Blog

Last edit date: 2022-01-05
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